Presentation on theme: "Technician License Class"— Presentation transcript:
1 Technician License Class Chapter 1Welcome to Amateur Radio
2 What is Amateur Radio?Amateur (or Ham) Radio is a personal radio service authorized by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
3 What is Amateur Radio?According to the FCC, the purpose of Amateur Radio is:To encourage the advancement of the art and science of radio.To promote the development of an emergency communication capability to assist communities when needed.To develop a pool of trained radio operators.To promote international good will by connecting private citizens in countries around the globe.
4 What is Amateur Radio?Through ham radio, you will become an ambassador for your community and your country.
5 What is Amateur Radio? Who Can be a Ham? US citizen Alien No age limit Not representative of foreign governmentNo age limitMust pass written examination
6 What is Amateur Radio? What Makes Amateur Radio Different? There are many unlicensed radio servicesHam radio is licensedFewer restrictionsMore frequencies (channels or bands to utilize)More power (to improve range and quality)More ways to communicate
7 What is Amateur Radio? More Privileges More Responsibility Because ham radios are much more capable and have the potential of interfering with other radio services.Because ham radios have unlimited reach.They easily reach around the globe and into space.
8 The FCC and LicensingFCC authorization is required to ensure the operator is qualified to operate the ham radio safely, appropriately, and within the rules and regulations – that is why you are here.
9 The FCC and LicensingThe FCC has different rules and regulations for each type of radio serviceThe Amateur Radio Service is governed by Part 97 of the FCC Rules and Regulations
10 The FCC and LicensingPrior to 1984, the FCC administered all amateur radio examinationsIn 1984 the Volunteer Examiner system was inauguratedTeams or 3 or more VE’s14 VEC’sNCVEC
11 Amateur Radio Activities Identification and ContactsEvery amateur in the world is issued a unique call signCall sign identifies countryIn the USA, call signs begin with AA-AL, K, N, or W
12 Amateur Radio Activities Identification and ContactsIn the USA, call sign may indicate what part of country
13 Amateur Radio Activities Identification and ContactsIn the USA, call sign may indicate class of licenseGroupDefinitionA1x2 (1st letter K, N, or W)2x1 (1st two letters AA-AL)2x2 (1st two letters AA-AL)B2x2 (1st letter K, N, or W)C1x3 (1st letter K, N, or W)D2x3 (1st letter K or W)ClassGroupsAmateur ExtraA, B, C, or DAdvancedB, C, or DGeneralC, or DTechnicianNoviceD
14 Amateur Radio Activities Identification and ContactsAny over-the-air conversation is called a “contact”.Contacts can be made usingVoiceMorse codeDigitalTelevisionSatellites, meteor scatter, EME, etc.
15 Amateur Radio Activities Identification and ContactsTypes of contacts include:Rag-chewingPublic ServiceContestsDXAwards
16 Getting Your Ham Radio License Operator License ClassesTechnicianEntry-levelPrivileges focused on local communicationsGeneralPrivileges include more long-distance communications capabilitiesAmateur ExtraAll amateur privileges
17 Getting Your Ham Radio License Testing ProcessTest sessions coordinated by a Volunteer Examiner Coordinator (VEC)FCC recognizes 14 VEC’sIndividual VEC’s may or may not charge a test feeARRL = $15W5YI = $14Laurel VEC = No test feeTeam of at least 3 Volunteer Examiners (VE’s) required to administer exam
18 Getting Your Ham Radio License Examination StructureExam questions taken from a published question pool.Technician question pool426 multiple-choice questions35 groups1 question from each groupAnswer order will be scrambled
24 T5B02 -- What is another way to specify a radio signal frequency of 1,500,000 hertz? 1500 kHz1500 MHz15 GHz150 kHz
25 T5B03 -- How many volts are equal to one kilovolt? One one-thousandth of a voltOne hundred voltsOne thousand voltsOne million volts
26 T5B04 -- How many volts are equal to one microvolt? One one-millionth of a voltOne million voltsOne thousand kilovoltsOne one-thousandth of a volt
27 T5B05 -- Which of the following is equivalent to 500 milliwatts?
28 0.003 amperes 0.3 amperes 3 amperes 3,000,000 amperes T5B06 -- If an ammeter calibrated in amperes is used to measure a 3000-milliampere current, what reading would it show?0.003 amperes0.3 amperes3 amperes3,000,000 amperes
29 T5B07 -- If a frequency readout calibrated in megahertz shows a reading of MHz, what would it show if it were calibrated in kilohertz?kHz35.25 kHz3525 kHz3,525,000 kHz
30 T5B08 -- How many microfarads are 1,000,000 picofarads?
31 T5B12 -- Which of the following frequencies is equal to 28,400 kHz? MHz2.800 MHzMHzkHz
32 T5B13 -- If a frequency readout shows a reading of 2425 MHz, what frequency is that in GHz?
33 Radio Signals & WavesRadio waves (electromagnetic radiation) are AC waves.Created by an electrical signal that rapidly changes direction.a.k.a. – Radio signal.Travel at the speed of light.Radio waves are used to carry the information you want to convey to someone else.
34 Radio Signals & WavesTurning electrical signal into a radio wave is called radiating or radiation.Not the same as radioactive radiation.Radio equipment is designed to manipulate radio signals.
35 Radio Signals & WavesBefore we study radio waves, we need to learn some wave vocabulary.AmplitudeFrequencyPeriodWavelengthHarmonics
36 Radio Signals & Waves Frequency Radio signals are AC signals. Rapidly reverse polarity & back again.Rate at which polarity changes is called “frequency”.Measured in Hertz (Hz).1 Hz = 1 complete cycle per secondThe range of frequencies that produces radio signals is referred to as “RF”.
37 Radio Signals & Waves Phase Signals at the same frequency that cross zero at exactly the same time are “in phase”.
38 Radio Signals & Waves Radio Frequency (RF) Spectrum The RF spectrum is the range of wave frequencies which will leave an antenna and travel through space.The RF spectrum is divided into segments of frequencies that basically have unique behavior.
39 Radio Signals & WavesRadio Frequency (RF) Spectrum
40 Radio Signals & WavesRadio Frequency (RF) Spectrum
41 Radio Signals & Waves Wavelength The distance a radio wave travels during one cycle.
42 300 fMHz λm Radio Signals & Waves Wavelength Frequency (MHz) = 300 / Wavelength (meters)Wavelength (meters) = 300 / Frequency (MHz)
43 Radio Signals & Waves The RF spectrum is divided into “bands”. Bands are named by their approximate wavelength.40m Band = MHz to MHz20m Band = MHz to MHz15m Band = MHz to MHz10m Band = MHz to MHz2m Band = 144 MHz to 148 MHz
44 Wave speed Waveform Wavelength Wave spread T3B01 -- What is the name for the distance a radio wave travels during one complete cycle?Wave speedWaveformWavelengthWave spread
45 T3B04 -- How fast does a radio wave travel through free space? At the speed of lightAt the speed of soundIts speed is inversely proportional to its wavelengthIts speed increases as the frequency increases
46 The wavelength gets longer as the frequency increases T3B05 -- How does the wavelength of a radio wave relate to its frequency?The wavelength gets longer as the frequency increasesThe wavelength gets shorter as the frequency increasesThere is no relationship between wavelength and frequencyThe wavelength depends on the bandwidth of the signal
47 Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz multiplied by 300 T3B06 -- What is the formula for converting frequency to approximate wavelength in meters?Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz multiplied by 300Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz divided by 300Wavelength in meters equals frequency in megahertz divided by 300Wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by frequency in megahertz
48 The approximate wavelength The magnetic intensity of waves T3B07 -- What property of radio waves is often used to identify the different frequency bands?The approximate wavelengthThe magnetic intensity of wavesThe time it takes for waves to travel one mileThe voltage standing wave ratio of waves
49 T3B08 -- What are the frequency limits of the VHF spectrum? 30 to 300 kHz30 to 300 MHz300 to 3000 kHz300 to 3000 MHz
50 T3B09 -- What are the frequency limits of the UHF spectrum? 30 to 300 kHz30 to 300 MHz300 to 3000 kHz300 to 3000 MHz
51 T3B10 -- What frequency range is referred to as HF? 300 to 3000 MHz30 to 300 MHz3 to 30 MHz300 to 3000 kHz
52 3000 kilometers per second 300,000,000 meters per second T3B11 -- What is the approximate velocity of a radio wave as it travels through free space?3000 kilometers per second300,000,000 meters per second300,000 miles per hour186,000 miles per hour
53 Pulse rate Speed Wavelength Frequency T5A12 -- What term describes the number of times per second that an alternating current reverses direction?Pulse rateSpeedWavelengthFrequency
54 T5C05 -- What is the unit of frequency? HertzHenryFaradTesla
55 T5C06 -- What does the abbreviation “RF” refer to? Radio frequency signals of all typesThe resonant frequency of a tuned circuitThe real frequency transmitted as opposed to the apparent frequencyReflective force in antenna transmission lines
56 ModulationA constant-strength radio signal on a single frequency is called a “continuous wave”.A continuous wave (CW) is not very useful for communications.Must add information to the radio signal to use it for communicating.Adding information is called “modulation”.
57 ModulationAny characteristic of the signal can be changed to add the information.AmplitudeFrequencyPhaseRetrieving the information from the signal is called “demodulation” or “detection”.
58 Modulation Different type of modulation are called “modes”. Simplest method is to merely turn the signal on and off in a particular pattern, such as Morse code. This mode is known as “CW”.Changing the strength (or amplitude) of the signal is known as amplitude modulation (AM).Changing the frequency of the signal is known as frequency modulation (FM).Under FM, mention phase modulation (PM).
60 Amplitude ModulationIn AM, the amplitude of the carrier wave is modified in step with the waveform of the information (voice).
61 Modulation Amplitude Modulation AM signals consist of three components:CarrierLower sidebandUpper sidebandVoice bandwidth is from 300 Hz to 3 kHz.AM bandwidth is twice the voice bandwidth.
62 Modulation Amplitude Modulation The sound waves that make up your voice are a complex mixture of multiple frequencies.When this complex mixture is embedded on a carrier, two sidebands are created that are mirror images.
64 Modulation Single Sideband (SSB) AM is made up of identical mirror image sidebands plus a carrierWe can improve the efficiency of transmission by transmitting only one sideband and then reconstruct the missing sideband & carrier at the receiver.
65 Modulation Frequency Modulation If we vary the frequency of the carrier in step with the information waveform, FM is produced.FM signals are much more resistant to the effects of noise but require more bandwidth.FM bandwidth (for voice) is between 10 and 15 kHz.
66 Modulation Phase Modulation If we vary the phase of the carrier in step with the information waveform, PM is produced.PM signals are a lot like FM signals.In FM, the amount of deviation is dependent only on the amplitude of the modulating signal.In PM, the amount of deviation is dependent on both the amplitude and the frequency of the modulating signal.
67 To allow for calibration error in the transmitter frequency display T1B09 -- Why should you not set your transmit frequency to be exactly at the edge of an amateur band or sub-band?To allow for calibration error in the transmitter frequency displaySo that modulation sidebands do not extend beyond the band edgeTo allow for transmitter frequency driftAll of these choices are correct
68 Both the frequency and amplitude of the modulating signal T2B05 -- What determines the amount of deviation of an FM (as opposed to PM) signal?Both the frequency and amplitude of the modulating signalThe frequency of the modulating signalThe amplitude of the modulating signalThe relative phase of the modulating signal and the carrier
69 Its signal occupies more bandwidth Its output power increases T2B06 -- What happens when the deviation of an FM transmitter is increased?Its signal occupies more bandwidthIts output power increasesIts output power and bandwidth increasesAsymmetric modulation occurs
70 Microphone gain too high, causing over-deviation SWR too high T2B07 -- What could cause your FM signal to interfere with stations on nearby frequencies?Microphone gain too high, causing over-deviationSWR too highIncorrect CTCSS ToneAll of these choices are correct
71 T8A01 -- Which of the following is a form of amplitude modulation? Spread-spectrumPacket radioSingle sidebandPhase shift keying
72 Modulation Comparing Types of Modulation Type of Signal Typical BandwidthAM Voice6 kHzAM Broadcast10 kHzAnalog TV6 MHzSSB Voice2 kHz to 3 kHzSSB Digital<100 Hz to 3 kHzCW150 HzFM Voice10 kHz to 15 kHzFM Broadcast180 kHz
73 FM SSB C. AM D. Spread Spectrum T8A02 -- What type of modulation is most commonly used for VHF packet radio transmissions?FMSSBC. AMD. Spread Spectrum
74 T8A03 -- Which type of voice mode is most often used for long-distance (weak signal) contacts on the VHF and UHF bands?A. FM B. DRM C. SSB D. PM
75 T8A04 -- Which type of modulation is most commonly used for VHF and UHF voice repeaters? A. AM B. SSB C. PSK D. FM
76 A. FM voice B. SSB voice C. CW D. Slow-scan TV T8A05 -- Which of the following types of emission has the narrowest bandwidth?A. FM voice B. SSB voice C. CW D. Slow-scan TV
77 T8A06 -- Which sideband is normally used for 10 meter HF, VHF and UHF single-sideband communications?A. Upper sideband B. Lower sideband C. Suppressed sideband D. Inverted sideband
78 T8A07 -- What is the primary advantage of single sideband over FM for voice transmissions? A. SSB signals are easier to tune B. SSB signals are less susceptible to interference C. SSB signals have narrower bandwidth D. All of these choices are correct
79 T8A08 -- What is the approximate bandwidth of a single sideband voice signal? A. 1 kHz B. 3 kHz C. 6 kHz D. 15 kHz
80 T8A09 -- What is the approximate bandwidth of a VHF repeater FM phone signal? A. Less than 500 Hz B. About 150 kHz C. Between 10 and 15 kHz D. Between 50 and 125 kHz
81 A. More than 10 MHz B. About 6 MHz C. About 3 MHz D. About 1 MHz T8A10 -- What is the typical bandwidth of analog fast-scan TV transmissions on the 70 cm band?A. More than 10 MHz B. About 6 MHz C. About 3 MHz D. About 1 MHz
82 T8A11 -- What is the approximate maximum bandwidth required to transmit a CW signal? A. 2.4 kHz B. 150 Hz C Hz D. 15 kHz
83 Radio Equipment Basics Basic Station OrganizationAll radio stations used for 2-way communications have the same 3 basic parts:TransmitterReceiverAntennaOften the transmitter & receiver are combined into a single unit called a “transceiver”.A hand-held transceiver even includes the antenna.
84 Radio Equipment Basics Basic Station Organization
85 Radio Equipment Basics RepeatersA repeater station transmits a received signal simultaneously on another frequency or channel.Most commonly used for FM voice communications.Repeaters allow limited-range stations such as mobile or hand-held transceivers to communicate over longer distances.
86 Radio Equipment Basics Accessory Station EquipmentIn addition to the items basic to all 2-way radio stations, you will probably want to add one or more accessory items:MicrophoneTelegraph keyAmplifierDigital interfaceetc.
87 Message forwarding station T1F09 -- What type of amateur station simultaneously retransmits the signal of another amateur station on a different channel or channels?Beacon stationEarth stationRepeater stationMessage forwarding station
88 T7A02 -- What is a transceiver? A type of antenna switchA unit combining the functions of a transmitter and a receiverA component in a repeater which filters out unwanted interferenceA type of antenna matching network