Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Bridging Two Topics: Media Ownership and Media Regulations Example: OUTFOXEDOUTFOXED.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Bridging Two Topics: Media Ownership and Media Regulations Example: OUTFOXEDOUTFOXED."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bridging Two Topics: Media Ownership and Media Regulations Example: OUTFOXEDOUTFOXED

2 Political Influence on Media Chapter 3

3 Regulation – International Perspective Method of government regulation varies Authoritarian in some nations; nonauthoritarian in most (government policies + free market forces) U.S. Government – miniscule regulation in comparison

4 To Regulate…Or Not To Regulate Government regulation because of media’s political and social importance Bigger Concern -- Corporate Domination or Government Control? First Amendment – Freedom of the Press Supporters of Regulation Concerned about Public Interest (definition?) FCC (Federal Communications Commission) Balance interests of various groups Media regulations not set in stone Promotes Diversity Supporters of Deregulation Consumers determine media’s fate Free market approach Arguments against Deregulation Not addressing how more money  more influence Viewers as consumers, not citizens Issue with media products being solely controlled by market demand

5 Regulation…but how? To what extent? “…virtually everyone involved with the media wants government regulation” (p. 77, emphasis in original) Deregulation (sometimes)  selective deregulation Regulations to protect media industry? Regulations to protect public against media industries in power? Industry responses to the regulation debate (e.g. political influence/connections) vs. citizen responses to the regulation debate (e.g. advocacy groups, social movement organizations, feedback to officials or FCC)

6 Regulating Ownership and Control Pirate Radio (Micro-broadcasters) Radio stations requires licenses (broadcast media uses public airwaves); Regulations prevent chaos and protect public interest Micro-broadcasters argue that regulations only benefit large media companies; small stations cause no threat Eventually (not without a fight) FCC began licensing smaller/low power stations. Local Community Radio Act (2011)

7 Regulating Ownership and Control Ownership of Media Outlets Change in times and technology  more regulation Conglomerate research  media a part of corporate entities Limits on ownership Limit monopolistic power Increase diversity Regulations changed over time (more relaxed) ‘Media companies successful in rolling back ownership restrictions’ (p. 83) Good for government? Media owners? Public?

8 Regulating Ownership and Control Content Ownership Copyright Laws “Originally intended to provide incentives….to produce new creations” (p. 85) Changes in what it covers and length of time Change in meaning? Fair Use Permissions required Example: Lexington BooksLexington Books Examples of copyright infringement Music sampling (without permission) “Bootleg” products Peer-to-peer networks (e.g Napster, Limewire) Example: Students at VT YouTube

9 Regulating Ownership and Control Ownership of Programming Earlier times  “fin-syn rules”  limited financial interests or syndication rights in TV programming (specifically for ABC, CBS, NBC) Changes in technology and increases in stations and networks led to changes in regulations Financial interests and syndication rights allowed  encouraged vertical integration

10 Regulating Ownership and Control Technology Internet Due to media convergence, FCC had to start questioning if and how to regulate the Internet Net Neutrality: “open access to the Internet and a level playing field for all websites, whereby all content would be treated equally” (p. 90) Faced with opposition (telecommunications and cable providers) Current situation closer to two-tier Internet than net neutrality Internet browsers, software, and bundling

11 Regulating Media Content and Distribution Liberal Regulation protects against dominance of private sector Regulation protects public interest Regulation encourages diversity Conservative Regulations  Government meddling In favor of property rights and free market system Issues with “’politically correct’ calls for diversity” (p. 92) Popularity determines success and failure of ideas Regulations against certain content (e.g. inappropriate for minors)

12 The Fairness Doctrine Goal = present diversity of views ‘broadcasters must cover public issues and provide opportunity for presentation of contrasting views’ (p. 93) Revoked in 1987 Still debated; do we need the Fairness Doctrine? Revisiting question from last class: Is it okay if stations are able to address public issues by focusing on one viewpoint? Why/why not? What are potential consequences (positive or negative)? Outfoxed For the Doctrine: concerned with marketplace media content  controlling ideas Against the Doctrine: argues it (as an example of regulation) does not allow for free expression of ideas

13 The Media’s Responsibility? Self-Regulation (inspired by/coupled with government regulations Motion Picture Association of America: Originally decided if a film was “appropriate”; after complaints/concerns, changed to rating system Motion Picture Association of America Television rating system (Telecommunications Act of 1996 Music: Voluntary parental-warning stickers Video games: Voluntary rating system Issues of morality and “the public interest” Government outlawing obscene material Regulating sexually explicit content for some media—necessity of such regulations is still debated Violence in media (and potential effects); to regulate and how – still debated

14 The Media’s Responsibility? Accuracy in Advertising Regulations  protect public against false ads Web created some loop holes; caused FTC to revisit guidelines Another concern: Advertisements for potentially dangerous products (especially for children) 1990s Children Television Act (faced opposition; agree or disagree?) Advertises want to protect their benefits from government (e.g. government as customer, postage rate subsidies) Web 2.0 brought about new questions about regulations Protecting/Advancing the National Interest Definition of the National Interest? Military dealing with media Learned how to handle media (press personnel) Press Pool Continued Press Restrictions “Sensitive Information” (endangering troops and/or affecting troop morale; press had issues with latter) Next approach  embedded reporters (some questioned the impact on reporting and framing of stories) Responses to Terrorism (secret intelligence gathering and surveillance)

15 Other Pressures/Influences Media Critics and Think Tanks (e.g. academics) Citizen Activists Increasing? Changing? (e.g. role of social media, Sorority Sisters)

Download ppt "Bridging Two Topics: Media Ownership and Media Regulations Example: OUTFOXEDOUTFOXED."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google