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PRINCIPLES OF REMOTE SENSING Lecture 1 Introduction.

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1 PRINCIPLES OF REMOTE SENSING Lecture 1 Introduction

2 GROUND RULES Assessments and Examinations: Total marks: 100 (AP - 85; YSR – 15) Distribution of my 85 marks: Mid-semester examination – 25 End-semester examination – 35 Assignments – 10 Quizzes (3 + 1 unannounced) – 10 Seminar - 5 Assignments and quiz would be distributed through out the semester.

3 GROUND RULES Attendance: Attendance would be taken; 85% attendance COMPULSARY NO COMPROMISE ON PUNCTUALITY …………..

4 GROUND RULES

5 Lecture notes / Working folder GROUND RULES

6 COURSE OBJECTIVES To understand: To understand: -the physics, chemistry, and technology involved in remote sensing -the techniques for preprocessing aerospace remote sensing images (processing techniques will be covered in SIP course) -panchromatic, multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum and to learn how to interpret the images acquired using these sensors In short, the primary objective is to provide the. In short, the primary objective is to provide the conceptual foundations and technical skills to apply remote sensing to solve real-world problems.

7 COURSE CONTENTS Atmospheric windows and effects, corrections Multispectral systems Characteristics of important remote sensing systems: LANDSAT, IRS, ASTER, SPOT; High resolution sensors Hyperspectral systems Thermal systems Microwave systems Interpretations and applications - agriculture, forestry, land-use mapping, geology, water resources etc etc. History and development of remote sensing Electromagnetic radiation - nature and sources, interaction with matter and atmosphere … and Arial Photography/Photogrammetry I Quiz II Quiz III Quiz

8 A remote sensing image (Band 1 – B) A remote sensing image (Band 1 – B)

9 A remote sensing image (Band 2 – G) A remote sensing image (Band 2 – G)

10 A remote sensing image (Band 3 – R) A remote sensing image (Band 3 – R)

11 A remote sensing image (Band 4 – VNIR) A remote sensing image (Band 4 – VNIR)

12 A remote sensing image (Band 6 – TIR) A remote sensing image (Band 6 – TIR)

13 A remote sensing image (TCC) A remote sensing image (TCC)

14 A remote sensing image (FCC 247) A remote sensing image (FCC 247)

15 A remote sensing image (FCC 234) A remote sensing image (FCC 234)

16 Remote sensing : Perspective Concept: what do we understand by remote sensing? Importance: Is it just pretty pictures or serious science? Does it add to our understanding of natural systems and resources? Applications to natural resources studies

17 Acquisition of information about an object without making physical contact Remote sensing : Concept Earth: surface, atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere planetssun stars; galaxies etc

18 Most widely used remote sensors: human eyes Most widely used remote sensors: human eyes Motivation for remote sensing systems Motivation for remote sensing systems Collection (eye), transmission (optic nerve) and storage (brain) Collection (eye), transmission (optic nerve) and storage (brain) Cannot distribute the data though Cannot distribute the data though Remote sensing : Concept

19 The sensor collects information within its IFOV (resolution cell) without being in direct physical contact with it. The sensor can be located on ground, aircraft and spacecraft platforms. Remote Sensing : Concept

20 Technology, science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area or phenomenon under the investigation. Remote sensing : Concept Technology : data collection Science and technology : data processing and analysis Science and art : data interpretation

21 “the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment, through the process of recording, measuring and interpreting imagery and digital representations of energy patterns derived from non-contact sensor systems.” ASPRS formal definition of photogrammetry and remote sensing: Remote sensing : Concept

22 A Systems View of Remote Sensing Remote Sensing Active Passive Passive Reflected light Thermal emission Passive Microwave Aerial photography Visible/near IR/SWIR imaging Thermal imaging Passive microwave radiometry Microwave sounding Laser Profiling and Lidar Visible/IR Active Microwave Altimetry, Scatterometry Synthetic Aperture Radar

23 Data Acquisition Data processing and analysis 1) In situ measurements (GPS, bio-mass, soil moisture, spectroradiometer, etc.) 2) Remote Sensing Data (passive and active remote sensing ) Visual interpretation Digital Image Processing Scientific Visualization Remote Sensing Process Science goal Information extraction

24 Types and classes of remote sensing data SpatialInformation IntensityInformation SpectralInformation ImagersAltimetersSounders (Polarimeters)ScatterometersRadiometers Spectrometers Imaging spectrometers Imaging radiometers

25 GeophysicalSonar Other types of remote sensing

26 Advantages of Remote Sensing Data can be gathered from large areas of the Earth’s surface or atmosphere in short space of time. Data can be gathered from large areas of the Earth’s surface or atmosphere in short space of time. In situ measurements are time consuming and costly over large areas. Remote Sensing is considered as cost effective. In situ measurements are time consuming and costly over large areas. Remote Sensing is considered as cost effective. No sampling bias - consistent coverage of the entire area No sampling bias - consistent coverage of the entire area Response of objects collected in different wavelengths Response of objects collected in different wavelengths

27 Often oversold Provides information only about the spectral properties of objects on the earth’s surface (and their variation in time and space). We hope that the spectral properties are proxies for the property we are interested in. Noise – atmospheric effects, topographic effects, soil/vegetation cover Often considered an end in it self (the pretty picture syndrome!) - remote sensing should enhance scientific understanding of the system under study. Limitations of Remote Sensing

28 AtmosphereLithosphereHydrosphereCryosphere Planetary science Land cover and land use Military. Applications of Remote Sensing

29 Further Reading Books : Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, Lillesand, Kiefer, Chipman, 2007 Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, Lillesand, Kiefer, Chipman, 2007 Introduction to Remote Sensing, Campbell, 1996 Introduction to Remote Sensing, Campbell, 1996 Remote Sensing : Principles and interpretation, Sabins, 1997 Remote Sensing : Principles and interpretation, Sabins, 1997 Physical Principles of Remote Sensing, Rees, 2001 Physical Principles of Remote Sensing, Rees, 2001 Introduction to physics and techniques of remote sensing, Elachi, 1987 Introduction to physics and techniques of remote sensing, Elachi, 1987 Remote Sensing of the Environment : An earth resource perspective, Jensen, 2000 Remote Sensing of the Environment : An earth resource perspective, Jensen, 2000 Journals : Remote Sensing of Environment Remote Sensing of Environment International Journal of Remote Sensing International Journal of Remote Sensing IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing ISPRS ISPRS ISPRS Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ISPRS Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing


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