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Presentation on theme: "PRINCIPLES OF REMOTE SENSING"— Presentation transcript:

Lecture 1 Introduction

2 GROUND RULES Assessments and Examinations:
Total marks: 100 (AP - 85; YSR – 15) Distribution of my 85 marks: Mid-semester examination – 25 End-semester examination – 35 Assignments – 10 Quizzes (3 + 1 unannounced) – 10 Seminar - 5 Assignments and quiz would be distributed through out the semester.

3 GROUND RULES Attendance:
Attendance would be taken; 85% attendance COMPULSARY NO COMPROMISE ON PUNCTUALITY …………..


5 Lecture notes / Working folder
GROUND RULES Lecture notes / Working folder

6 COURSE OBJECTIVES To understand:
the physics, chemistry, and technology involved in remote sensing the techniques for preprocessing aerospace remote sensing images (processing techniques will be covered in SIP course) panchromatic, multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum and to learn how to interpret the images acquired using these sensors In short, the primary objective is to provide the conceptual foundations and technical skills to apply remote sensing to solve real-world problems.

7 COURSE CONTENTS ----------------- I Quiz ------------------- II Quiz
Atmospheric windows and effects, corrections Multispectral systems Characteristics of important remote sensing systems: LANDSAT, IRS, ASTER, SPOT; High resolution sensors Hyperspectral systems Thermal systems Microwave systems Interpretations and applications - agriculture, forestry, land-use mapping, geology, water resources etc etc. History and development of remote sensing Electromagnetic radiation - nature and sources, interaction with matter and atmosphere I Quiz II Quiz … and Arial Photography/Photogrammetry. III Quiz

8 A remote sensing image (Band 1 – B)
Blue penetrates clear water better than other colors - see the texture of/in the water along the shore.  River shows shades of grey, depending on the depth of water It is absorbed by chlorophyll, and so plants don't show up very brightly in this band.  That is why the fields all look drab and washed out. However, it is useful for soil/vegetation discrimination, dark fields vs light coloured fields different shades of grey Roads, inhabitations, air strip bright Breakers, very bright, beach sand bright

9 A remote sensing image (Band 2 – G)
penetrates clear water fairly well, and gives excellent contrast between clear and turbid (muddy) water.  It helps find oil on the surface of water, and vegetation (plant life) reflects more green light than any other visible color.  Manmade features are still visible (note the airport).

10 A remote sensing image (Band 3 – R)
limited water penetration.  It reflects well from dead foliage, but not well from live foliage with chlorophyll.  It is useful for identifying vegetation types, soils, and urban (city and town) features. Town becoming much brighter

11 A remote sensing image (Band 4 – VNIR)
is good for mapping shorelines Biomass content - It is very good at detecting and analyzing vegetation.  See how the fields that looked almost the same in bands 1, 2, or even 3 have changed dramatically in band 4.  But the airport has darkened.

12 A remote sensing image (Band 6 – TIR)
Temperature – town area, as expected hottest; golf course cooler, so are mountain and vegetation

13 A remote sensing image (TCC)
For the true color rendition, band 1 is displayed in the blue color, band 2 is displayed in the green color, and band 3 is displayed in the red color.  The resulting image is fairly close to realistic - as though you took the picture with your camera and were riding in the satellite.  But it is also pretty dull - there is little contrast and features in the image are hard to distinguish.

14 A remote sensing image (FCC 247)
In this SWIR image, band 2 is displayed in blue, band 4 is displayed in green, and band 7 (or 5) is displayed in red.  This rendition looks like a jazzed up true color rendition - one with more striking colors.

15 A remote sensing image (FCC 234)
In this image, band 2 is displayed in blue, band 3 is displayed in green, and band 4 is displayed in red.  This rendition looks rather strange - vegetation jumps out as a bright red because green vegetation readily reflects infrared light energy!  It is similar to pictures taken from aircraft when using infrared film and is very useful for studying vegetation.

16 Remote sensing : Perspective
Concept: what do we understand by remote sensing? Importance: Is it just pretty pictures or serious science? Does it add to our understanding of natural systems and resources? Applications to natural resources studies

17 Remote sensing : Concept
Acquisition of information about an object without making physical contact Earth: surface, atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere planets sun stars; galaxies etc

18 Remote sensing : Concept
Most widely used remote sensors: human eyes Motivation for remote sensing systems Collection (eye), transmission (optic nerve) and storage (brain) Cannot distribute the data though Constant resolution Visible part of the spectra

19 Remote Sensing : Concept
The sensor collects information within its IFOV (resolution cell) without being in direct physical contact with it. The sensor can be located on ground, aircraft and spacecraft platforms.

20 Remote sensing : Concept
Technology, science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area or phenomenon under the investigation. Technology : data collection Science and technology : data processing and analysis Science and art : data interpretation

21 Remote sensing : Concept
ASPRS formal definition of photogrammetry and remote sensing: “the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment, through the process of recording, measuring and interpreting imagery and digital representations of energy patterns derived from non-contact sensor systems.”

22 A Systems View of Remote Sensing
Passive Active Visible/IR Active Microwave Reflected light Thermal emission Passive Microwave Light amplifcation by stimulated emission of radiation Light detection and ranging Laser Profiling and Lidar Altimetry, Scatterometry Synthetic Aperture Radar Aerial photography Visible/near IR/SWIR imaging Passive microwave radiometry Microwave sounding Thermal imaging

23 Remote Sensing Process
Science goal Data processing and analysis Data Acquisition Information extraction 1) In situ measurements (GPS, bio-mass, soil moisture, spectroradiometer, etc.) 2) Remote Sensing Data (passive and active remote sensing ) Visual interpretation Digital Image Processing Scientific Visualization

24 Types and classes of remote sensing data
Spatial Information Imagers Altimeters Sounders Imaging spectrometers Imaging radiometers (Polarimeters) Scatterometers Radiometers Spectral Information Spectrometers Intensity Information

25 Other types of remote sensing
Geophysical Sonar

26 Advantages of Remote Sensing
Data can be gathered from large areas of the Earth’s surface or atmosphere in short space of time. In situ measurements are time consuming and costly over large areas. Remote Sensing is considered as cost effective. No sampling bias - consistent coverage of the entire area Response of objects collected in different wavelengths

27 Limitations of Remote Sensing
Often oversold Provides information only about the spectral properties of objects on the earth’s surface (and their variation in time and space). We hope that the spectral properties are proxies for the property we are interested in. Noise – atmospheric effects, topographic effects, soil/vegetation cover Often considered an end in it self (the pretty picture syndrome!) - remote sensing should enhance scientific understanding of the system under study.

28 Applications of Remote Sensing
Atmosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere Cryosphere Planetary science Land cover and land use Military .

29 Further Reading Books :
Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, Lillesand, Kiefer, Chipman, 2007 Introduction to Remote Sensing, Campbell, 1996 Remote Sensing : Principles and interpretation, Sabins, 1997 Physical Principles of Remote Sensing, Rees, 2001 Introduction to physics and techniques of remote sensing, Elachi, 1987 Remote Sensing of the Environment : An earth resource perspective, Jensen , 2000 Journals : Remote Sensing of Environment International Journal of Remote Sensing IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing ISPRS ISPRS Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing


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