2Outline Motivation & scope Parameters & design challenges Preparing global FCC collaborationStudy organization – WBSStudy Time Line, next stepsEU FCC design study proposalSummary
3Summary: European Strategy Update 2013 Design studies and R&D at the energy frontier….“to propose an ambitious post-LHC accelerator project at CERN by the time of the next Strategy update”:d) CERN should undertake design studies for accelerator projects in a global context,with emphasis on proton-proton and electron-positron high-energy frontier machines.These design studies should be coupled to a vigorous accelerator R&D programme, including high-field magnets and high-gradient accelerating structures,in collaboration with national institutes, laboratories and universities worldwide.
5Future Circular Collider Study - SCOPE CDR and cost review for the next ESU (2018)Forming an international collaboration to study:pp-collider (FCC-hh) defining infrastructure requirementse+e- collider (FCC-ee) as potential intermediate stepp-e (FCC-he) optionkm infrastructure in Geneva area~16 T 100 TeV pp in 100 km~20 T 100 TeV pp in 80 km
6FCC motivation: pushing energy frontier High-energy hadron collider FCC-hh as long-term goalSeems only approach to get to 100 TeV range in the coming decadesHigh energy and luminosity at affordable power consumptionLead time design & construction > 20 years (LHC study started 1983!) Must start studying now to be ready for 2035/2040Lepton collider FCC-ee as potential intermediate stepWould provide/share part of infrastructureImportant precision measurements indicating the energy scale at which new physics is expectedSearch for new physics in rare decays of Z, W, H, t and rare processesLepton-hadron collider FCC-he as optionHigh precision deep inelastic scattering and Higgs physicsMost aspects of collider designs and R&D non-site specific.Tunnel and site study in Geneva area as ESU requests.
7Main areas of FCC design study InfrastructureHadron collider conceptual designHadron and lepton injectorsLepton collider conceptual designSafety, operation, energy management environmental aspectsAccelerators and infrastructure conceptual designsHigh-field magnetsSuperconducting RF systemsCryogenicsSpecific technologiesPlanningTechnologiesR&D activitiesplanningHadron coll. physics experimentsinterface, integratione+ e- coll. physics experiments interface, integratione- - p physics, experiments,Interface, integrationPhysics experiments detectors
8FCC-hh parameters – starting point Energy TeV c.m.Dipole field ~ 16 T (Nb3Sn), [20 T option HTS]Circumference ~ 100 km#IPs 2 main (tune shift) + 2Luminosity/IPmain 5x1034 cm-2s-1Stored beam energy 8.2 GJ/beamSynchrotron radiation 26 W/m/aperture (filling fact. ~78% in arc)Long. emit damping time 0.5 hBunch spacing 25 ns [5 ns option]Bunch population (25 ns) 1x1011 pTransverse emittance micron normalized#bunchesBeam-beam tune shift (total)b* m (HL-LHC: 0.15 m)already available from SPS for 25 ns
9FCC-hh design challenges Optics and beam dynamicsIR design, dynamic aperture studies, SC magnet field qualityImpedances, instabilities, feedbacksBeam-beam, e-cloud, resistive wall, feedback systems designSynchrotron radiation dampingcontrolled blow up, luminosity levelling, etc…Energy in beam & magnets dump, collimation, quench protectionStored beam energy critical: 8 GJ/beam (0.4 GJ LHC)Beam losses, radiation effects collimation, shieldingSynergies intensity frontier (SNS, J-PARC, PSI, PIP, FRIB, ESS, FAIR)High synchrotron radiation load on beam pipeUp to 26 W/m/aperture in arcs, total of ~5 MW for FCC-hh(LHC has a total of 1W/m/aperture from different sources)Heat extraction: photon stop, beam screen temperature, cryo load,Synergies with SSC,VLHC, LHC, light sources, SppC, …
10High-field magnet R&D targets FCC-hh baseline 16T Nb3Sn technology for ~100 TeV c.m. in ~100 kmDevelop Nb3Sn-based 16 T dipole technology,with sufficient aperture (~40 mm) andaccelerator features (field quality, protectability, cycled operation).In parallel conductor developmentsPossible goal:16T short dipole models by 2018 (America, Asia, Europe)Possible goal:demonstrate HTS/LTS 20 T technology in two stepsa field record attempt to break the 20 T barrier (no aperture), anda 5 T insert, with sufficient aperture (40 mm) and accel. featuresIn parallel HTS development targeting 20 T:HTS insert, generating O(5 T) additional fieldin large aperture O(100 mm, 15 T)
11FCC-ee parameters – starting point Design choice: max. synchrotron radiation power set to 50 MW/beamDefines the maximum beam current at each energy4 physics operation points (energies) foreseen Z, WW, H, ttbarOptimization at each operation point, mainly via bunch number and arc cell lengthParameterZWWHttbarLEP2E/beam (GeV)4580120175105L (1034 cm-2s-1)/IP28.012.05.91.80.012Bunches/beam1670044901330984I (mA)1450152306.63Bunch popul. 0.70.471.404.2Cell length [m]3001005079Tune shift / IP0.030.060.090.07
12FCC-ee design challenges Short beam lifetime from high luminosity (radiative Bhabha scattering)Top-up injection (single injector booster in collider tunnel)Additional lifetime limit from beamstrahlung at top operation energyFlat beams (small vertical emittance, small vertical b* ~ 1 mm)Final focus with large (~2%) energy acceptance to reduce lossesMachine layout for high currents, large #bunches at Z pole, WW, HTwo ring layout and configuration of the RF system.Polarization for high precision energy calibration at Z pole and WW with long natural polarization times (WW: ~10 hours, Z: ~200 hours)Important expertise available worldwide and potential synergies:IR design, experimental insertions, machine detector interface, (transverse) polarizationRHIC, VEPP-2000, BEPC-II, SLC, LEP, B- and Super-B factories, CEPC, ILC, CLIC
13SC-RF main R&D areas SC cavity R&D Large 𝑸 𝟎 at high gradient and acceptable cryogenic powerRecent results at 4 K with Nb3Sn coating on Nb at Cornell800 ℃ ÷1400 ℃ heat treatment at JLABBeneficial effect of impurities observed at FNALRelevant for many other accelerator applicationsHigh efficiency RF power generation from grid to beamPower converter technologyKlystron efficiencies beyond 65%, alternative RF sources as Solid State Power Amplifier or multi-beam IOT (inductive output tube), etc.Relevant for all high power accelerators, intensity frontier (drivers):J-PARC, SNS, nstorm, LBNE, XFEL, μcoll, ESS, MYRRHA, …Overall RF system reliability relevant for FCC-hh and FCC-eeR&D Goal is optimization of overall efficiency, reliability and cost!Power source efficiency, low-loss high-gradient SC cavities, operation temperature vs. cryogenic load, total system cost and dimension.
14FCC-he parameters – starting point Design choice: beam parameters as available from hh and eeMax. e± beam current at each energy determined by 50 MW SR limit.1 physics interaction point, optimization at each energycollider parameterse± scenariosprotonsspeciese± (polarized)e±pbeam energy [GeV]8012017550000luminosity [1034cm-2s-1]18.104.22.168bunch intensity 0.70.461.41.0#bunches per beam449013609810600beam current [mA]152306.6500sx,y* [micron]4.5, 2.3
15FCC-he design challenges Integration aspects, machine detector interfaceSynchrotron radiationLarge polar angle acceptanceIR optics & magnets with 3 beamsCrossing schemeDetector integrated dipole, final SC quadrupoles, crab cavities,Concurrent operation of e±h with hh or/and e+e- operation?Relevant expertise available worldwide and potential synergies:HERA, eRHIC, MEIC, HIAF-EIC,…Alternative option for eh collisions in connection with FCC-hh:Potential reuse of an energy recovery linac (ERL) that is being studied in the frame of the LHeC study.
16FCC global design study preparation Following ESU in May 2013, creation of a small preparation group in autumn 2013 to prepare on a short time scale:preliminary draft baseline parameter sets for all optionsa possible work breakdown structure and study organisationan international kick-off meeting (now!)Kick-off event should start process of internat. collaborationpresenting preparatory work as basis for discussion draft parameter sets & WBS documents availableinviting feedback and suggestionsworking towards formation of aglobal design study collaboration integrating all aspects of machines, physics and detectorsReflected in kick-off meeting programme.
17International collaboration process in 2014 Proposal for next steps:Suggestions and comments from international community and discussion on study contents, organisation and resourcesInvitation of non-committing expressions of interest for contributions from worldwide institutes by end May 2014Prepare for formation of International Collaboration Board (ICB); proposed date first meeting 9-11 September 2014, to start FCC studyMarch April May June July August September 2014kick-offeventexpressions of interest (EOI)proposed 1stICB meetingdiscussionsiterationsProcess can be moderated by preparation group (possibly extended – following EOI) until global collaboration is formed and an international team is put in place to conduct the further studyProcess remains open, further joining possible …
18FCC Kick-Off & Study Preparation Team Future Circular Colliders - Conceptual Design StudyStudy coordination, M. Benedikt, F. ZimmermannHadron colliderD. SchulteHadron injectorsB. Goddarde+ e- collider and injectorsJ. WenningerInfrastructure, cost estimatesP. LebrunTechnologyHigh Field MagnetsL. BotturaSupercon-ducting RFE. JensenCryogenicsL. TavianSpecific TechnologiesJM. JimenezPhysics and experimentsHadronsA. Ball, F. Gianotti,M. Manganoe+ e-A. BlondelJ. Ellis, P. Janote- pM. Kleine- p optionIntegration aspects O. BrüningOperation aspects,energy efficiency, safety, environment P. CollierPlanning (Implementation roadmap, financial planning, reporting)F. Sonnemann, J. Gutleber
22Proposal for FCC Study Time Line 20142015201620172018Q1Q2Q3Q4PrepareKick-off, collaboration forming,study plan and organisationPh 1: Explore options“weak interaction”Workshop & Review identification of baselinePh 2: Conceptual study of baseline “strong interact.”Workshop & Review, cost model, LHC results study re-scoping?Ph 3: StudyconsolidationWorkshop & Review contents of CDR4 large FCC Workshops distributed over participating regionsReportRelease CDR & Workshop on next steps
23Possible FCC Study Phases Phase 1: Explore options, now – spring 2015:Investigate different options in all technical areas, taking a broad viewDeliverables: description and comparison of options with relative merits/costFCC workshop to converge to common baseline with small number of optionsProposed WS date 23 – 27 March 2015 (presently no known collisions…)Followed by review ~2 months later, begin June 2015Phase 2: Conceptual design: spring 2015 – autumn 2016Conceptual study of baseline and remaining options with iterations between all areasDeliverable: description of baseline with first cost model, identification of critical areas, cost drivers, performance limitationsFCC workshop to discuss conceptual design, performance and cost figuresProposed date autumn 2016.Followed by review 2 months later to take into account LHC results and do re-scoping of study for phase 3Phase 3: Study consolidation: winter 2016 – winter 2017Detailed conceptual design of re-scoped baselineDeliverables: description of re-scoped baseline with cost model, identification of critical areas, cost drivers, performance limitations, planning for further R&D activitiesFCC workshop to discuss conceptual design, performance and cost figures and contents for CDR editing.Proposed date autumn 2017.Followed by review 2 months later to confirm CDR contentsPhase4: Editing conceptual design report: winter 2017 – summer 2018
24FCC EU Design Study (DS) Proposal Horizon2020 call – design study, deadlinePrepare proposal parallel to FCC collaboration setupGoals fo EU DS: conceptual design, prototypes, cost estimates, …From FP7 HiLumi LHC DS positive experience:5-6 work packages as sub-set of FCC study~10-15 beneficiaries (signatories of the contract with EC)kick-offeventinput frominterestedpartners,end of Maysubmissionof EU FCC DSproposal, 2 Sept.discussionsiteration,agreements,signaturesMarch April May June July August September 2014completedraftproposal,end of JuneTime lineNon-EU partners can join as beneficiary – signatory with or w/o ECcontribution (contractual commitment) or as associated partner – non-signatory (in-kind contribution with own funding, no contractual commitment)
25FCC Study - SummaryIn line with the European Strategy, CERN is launching a 5-year international design study for Future Circular Colliders;Worldwide collaboration in all areas - physics, experiments and accelerators – is essential to reach CDR level by 2018.FCC R&D areas e.g. SC high-field magnets and SC RF are of general interest & relevant for many other applications.Significant R&D investments have been made over last decade(s), e.g. in the framework of LHC and HL-LHC; further continuation will ensure efficient use of past investments.Goals of kick-off meeting: Introducing FCC study, discussing study scope and organization, preparing and establishing collaboration! Invitation to join!