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Ch.1 Introduction Optoelectronic devices: - devices deal with interaction of electronic and optical processes Solid-state physics: - study of solids, through.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch.1 Introduction Optoelectronic devices: - devices deal with interaction of electronic and optical processes Solid-state physics: - study of solids, through."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch.1 Introduction Optoelectronic devices: - devices deal with interaction of electronic and optical processes Solid-state physics: - study of solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism and metallurgy Elemental semiconductors: - Si, Ge,..etc. - indirect bandgap, low electric-optics conversion efficiency Compound semiconductors - III-V (e.g. GaN, GaAs), II-VI - direct bandgap, high electric-optics conversion efficiency GaAs, InP - higher mobility than Si, Ge, - energy band gap, Eg: 1.43 (GaAs), 1.35 (InP) - most common substrate, used to grow up compound semiconductors

2 Periodic Table

3 Band structure Band structure: - results of crystal potential that originates from equilibrium arrangement of atoms in lattice - directed from potential model and electron wave equation (Schrodinger equation) time-dependent Schrodinger equation E: electron energy, φ:wave equation, m: electron mass, ħ: Plank constant

4 Electron energy band diagram v.s. wave number

5 Energy bandgap v.s. lattice constant

6 Bonding in solids Van der Waals bonding: formation of dipoles between atoms and their electrons e.g.: inert gas, like Ar Ionic bonding: electron exchange between atoms produces positive and negative ions which attract each other by Coulomb-type interactions e.g. NaCl, KCl covalent bonding sharing of electrons between neighboring atoms e.g.: elemental and compound semiconductors Metallic bonding: valence electrons are shared by many atoms (bonding not directional, electron free or nearly free contributed to conductivity) e.g.: Zn

7 Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) structure e.g. iron, chromium, tungsten, niobium

8 Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) structure e.g.: aluminum, copper, gold, silver

9 Diamond Cubic (FCC) structure

10 Zincblende structure Diamond structure, Zincblende structure e.g.: aluminum, GaAse.g.: Si, Ge

11 Atomic arrangement in different solids

12 Dislocation & strain Dislocation occurs if - epitaxial layer thickness > h c (critical thickness), or - epitaxial layer thickness < h c, but with large mismatch Strain occurs if - epitaxial layer thickness < hc, and with small mismatch

13 Strain semiconductor a) lattice match b) compressive strain c) tensile strain Strain offer flexibility for restriction of lattice mismatch

14 Crystal Growth Bulk growth: - furnace growth - pulling technique Epitaxial growth: - Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) - Vapor Phase Epitaxy (VPE), or termed Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) - Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)

15 Epitaxy epi means “above” taxis means “in order manner” epitaxy can be translated to “to arrange upon” with controlled thickness and doping subtract acts as a seed crystal, deposited film takes on a lattice structure and orientation identical to the subtract different from thin film deposition that deposit polycrystalline or amorphous film - homoepitaxy: epi and subtract are with the same material epi layer more pure than subtract and have different doping level - hetroepitaxy: used for - Si-based process for BJT and CMOS, or - compound semiconductors, such as GaAs

16 Epitaxy Material Growth Methods Liquid Phase Epitaxy Vapor Phase Epitaxy (VPE), or termed Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) - formation of condensed phase from gas of different chemical composition - distinct from physical vapor deposition (PVD) such as sputtering, e-beam deposition, MBE (condensation occurs without chemical change) - gas stream through a reactor and interact on a heated subtract to grow epi layer Molecular Beam Epitaxy

17 Doping of Semiconductors Intrinsic materials: undoped - Undoped materials by epitaxy technology have more carriers than in intrinsic material. e.g. GaAs: /cm 3 (instrinsic carrier concentration: 1.8x10 6 /cm 3 ) - impurity comes from source materials, carrier gases, process equipment, or subtract handle Extrinsic materials: - n-type: III sub-lattice of III-V compound is substituted by V elements: impurity terms “donor” - p-type: V sub-lattice of III-V compound is substituted by III elements: impurity terms “acceptor”

18 Optical fiber - lowest loss at 1.55 um - lowest dispersion” 1.3 um

19 Energy band theory


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