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14-Jan-2013 Fanny Mlinarsky Introduction: Understanding the Different Flavors of IEEE 802.11 1 Wireless for Miniaturized Consumer Electronics.

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Presentation on theme: "14-Jan-2013 Fanny Mlinarsky Introduction: Understanding the Different Flavors of IEEE 802.11 1 Wireless for Miniaturized Consumer Electronics."— Presentation transcript:

1 14-Jan-2013 Fanny Mlinarsky Introduction: Understanding the Different Flavors of IEEE Wireless for Miniaturized Consumer Electronics

2 Outline A brief history of alphabet soup Chipsets and reference designs Emerging technology 2

3 Wireless capacity / throughput First cell phones GSM CDMA a/b/g e LTE Increasing throughput and capacity WCDMA/HSxPA 2G 3G 4G IEEE 802 Brief History of Wireless 3 TACS AMPS NMT IS-54 IS-136 GPRS Analog G = generation LTE-A n/ac 5G Key wireless technologies 2015

4 OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) OFDM is the most robust signaling scheme for a hostile wireless channel – Works well in the presence of multipath thanks to multi-tone signaling and cyclic prefix (aka guard interval) OFDM is used in all new wireless standards, including – a, g and draft ac, ad – d,e; – DVB-T, DVB-H, DAB LTE is the first 3GPP standard to adopt OFDM 4 Multiple orthogonal carriers FrequencyVoltage DVB = digital video broadcasting DVB-T = DVB terrestrial DVB-H = DVB handheld DAB = digital audio broadcasting LTE = long term evolution OFDM = orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

5 History of IEEE : FCC authorizes ISM bands (900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz) 1990: IEEE begins work on : 2.4 GHz products ship 1997: standard approved 1998: FCC authorizes UNII Band, (5 GHz) 1999: a, b ratified 2003: g ratified 2006: n draft 2 certification by the Wi-Fi Alliance begins 2009: n certification  2013: ac (up to 6.9 Gbps) and ad (up to 6.8 Gbps) 5 ISM = Industrial, Scientific and Medical UNII = Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure

6 Key Unlicensed Bands FCC spectrum allocation chart GHz public safety 5.9 DSRC (connected vehicle) MHz 3.1 GHz10.6 GHz DSRC = direct short range communications 700 MHz White Spaces

7 Channels in the 5GHz Band US Europe, Japan, Global FCC just allowed channel 144, creating additional 20, 40 and 80 MHz channels in the US 7

8 20 MHz Channel40 MHz Channel 1 stream2 streams3 streams4 streams1 stream2 streams3 streams4 streams Data Rate, in Mbps b 2.4 GHz 1, 2, 5.5, a 5 GHz 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, g 2.4 GHz 1, 2, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, n 2.4 and 5 GHz 6.5, 13, 19.5, 26, 39, 52, 58.5, 65 13, 26, 39, 52, 78, 104, 117, , 39, 58.5, 78, 117, 156, 175.5, , 52, 78, 104, 156, 208, 234, , 27, 40.5, 54, 81, 108, 121.5, , 54, 81, 108, 162, 216, 243, , 81, 121.5, 162, 243, 324, 364.5, , 108, 162, 216, 324, 432, 486, n, SGI enabled 2.4 and 5 GHz 7.2, 14.4, 21.7, 28.9, 43.3, 57.8, 65, , 28.9, 43.3, 57.8, 86.7, 115.6, 130, , 43.3, 65, 86.7, 130, 173.3, 195, , 57.8, 86.7, 115.6, 173.3, 231.1, 260, , 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 135, , 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 270, , 90, 135, 180, 270, 360, 405, , 120, 180, 240, 360, 480, 540, 600 IEEE a,b,g,n Data Rates 8 SGI = short guard interval

9 IEEE Very High Throughput The goal of the VHT effort is to achieve 1 Gbps throughput at nomadic (walking speeds) to support HD video transmission and high speed data applications and to satisfy the IMT-Advanced requirements TGac and TGad TGac Under 6 GHz (2.4 and 5 GHz bands) Up to 6.9 Gbps Higher order MIMO (> 4x4) 8 spatial streams Multi-user (MU) MIMO TGad 60 GHz band Up to 6.8 Gbps Capitalize on work already done by c in the 60 GHz band Beamforming VHT = very high throughput 9

10 TGac – Next Generation Wi-Fi Up to 6.9 Gbps of PHY data rate (draft 0.1) Higher order MIMO (> 4x4) 8 spatial streams Multi-user (MU) MIMO – Up to 4 users; up to 4 streams per user Higher bandwidth channels (20, 40, 80, and 160 MHz) 10 MU-MIMO Multiple beamformed streams in the same channel

11 802.11ad 60 GHz Channels Channelf c (GHz)Country US US, Japan, EU, Australia US, Japan, EU Japan, EU EIRP: (40 dBm avg, 43 dBm peak in the US; 57 dBm in Europe, Japan and Australia Channel 2 must be supported IEEE ad is the key standard; other specifications are: c, ECMA-387, WirelessHD Channel spacing = 2160MHz 11

12 Beamforming and Beam Steering Beamforming is a feature of ac and central to ad Optimizes the range by focusing the energy between transmitting and receiving nodes 12

13 Source: Sub 1 GHz Wi-Fi for Smart Grid 13

14 IEEE Smart Grid ECSG ECSG = executive committee study group SDO = standards defining organization Serves as a single point of contact for questions regarding the use of 802 standards in Smart Grid applications Covers wired and wireless 802 protocols Acts as a liaison with regulatory agencies, industry organizations, other SDOs, government agencies, IEEE societies Acts as a resource for understanding 802 standards for certification efforts by industry bodies sggrid/bin/view/SmartGrid/PAP02Wireless?sor tcol=1;table=9;up=0http://collaborate.nist.gov/twiki- sggrid/bin/view/SmartGrid/PAP02Wireless?sor tcol=1;table=9;up=0 PES = power energy society OpenSG = open smart grid UTC = utilities telecom council IEC = international electrotechnical commission

15 Smart Metering at 915 MHz? Lower frequency = longer operating range Internationally available bands in the vicinity of 915 MHz supported by common radio chipsets Two emerging IEEE 802 wireless standards target this band for smart metering and industrial controls applications 15 RegionUnlicensed Band (MHz) Europe Japan China Korea Singapore US ah g

16 802.11ah Sub 1 GHz License-exempt More than 100 kbps with coverage of up to 1 km; 600 kHz to 20 MHz channel bandwidth Smart grid – extremely large number of stations (6000 stations per AP) Environmental and agricultural monitoring – moderately large number of stations (200 per AP) Healthcare and building automation – dozens of stations Outdoor application for extended range Wi-Fi – common ground with af White Spaces amendment 16 AP = access point

17 802.11af – Database Fixed TVBDs require geolocation capability and Internet access to a database of protected radio services. An af AP can use the 2.4 GHz band to get to the database and find out the available TVB channels and then switch operation to TVB IETF PAWS group is developing the database standard 17 Administrator 1 Administrator 2 Administrator 3 DB 3 DB 2DB 1 Mode II Device Mode I Device GPS Satellite Geolocation Available channels Fixed TVB = TV band TVBD = TV band devices DB = database IETF = internet engineering task force PAWS = protocol to access white space IETF PAWS

18 Commonality ac/af/ah af/ah derive their specifications from ac Operation of 11af and 11ah is under 1 GHz Support for longer delay spread outdoor deployments ac af802.11ah Sub-1GHz (smart grid) UHF (TV band) Very High Throughput (5 GHz) Jan-2016Jun-2014 Feb-2014

19 Intelligent Transportation Systems Crash avoidance – Emergency electronic brake light – Forward collision warning – Blind spot warning / lane change warning – Do not pass warning – Left turn assist Safety assist – Remote diagnosis (EV battery monitoring) – Stopped vehicle or pedestrian warning – Road condition warning Convenience – Toll collection – Charging station guidance / info for EV – Mobile commerce / mobile advertisement – Web browsing, File (video, audio) downloading 19 Do not pass Good introduction herehere p – 5.9 GHz

20 802.11p DSRC p is the PHY for ITS DSRC is the method for vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to road-side unit communications to support… – Public safety, collision avoidance, traffic awareness and management, traveler information, toll booth payments Under regulation of DoT DSRC = dedicated short range communications DoT = department of transportation ITS = intelligent transportation systems

21 IEEE Active Task Groups TGm – Maintenance TGac – VHT below 6 GHz (very high throughput < 6 GHz) TGad – VHT at 60 GHz TGaf – TV Band operation TGah – Operation in 900 MHz band TGai – Fast initial link setup TGaj – China Mili-Meter Wave TGak – General Link TGaq – Pre-Association Discovery ARC SC – Architecture REG SC – Regulatory WNG SC – Wireless Next Generation TG = task group SG = study group SC = standing committee 21

22 Past Task Groups TGma – Maintenance TGa – 5 GHz OFDM PHY TGb – 2.4 GHz 11 Mbps; DSSS PHY TGc – Bridging (part of 802.1) TGd – Additional regulatory domains TGe – Quality of Service TGf – Inter-AP protocol TGg – 2.4 GHz OFDM PHY TGh – Radar avoidance (DFS, TPC) TGi – Security TGk – Radio Resource Measurements TGn – High Throughput; MIMO TGp – Vehicular ITS networks TGr – Fast Roaming TGs – Mesh networking TGT – IEEE 802 Performance TGu – InterWorking with External Networks TGv – Wireless network management TGw – Protected Management Frames TGy – MHz Operation in US TGz – Direct Link Setup TGaa – Robust streaming of AV Transport Streams TGae – Prioritization of management frames 22 OFDM = orthogonal frequency division multiplexing DSSS = direct sequence spread spectrum ITS = intelligent transportation systems MIMO = multiple input multiple output DFS = dynamic frequency selection TPC = transmit power control

23 IEEE Timeline IEEE Standard IEEE Standard July 1997 April IEEE Standard TGk TGma TGn TGp TGr TGs TGT TGu TGv TGw TGy TGa TGbTGb-cor1 TGcTGd TGe TGF TGg TGh TGi TGj Part of withdrawn June 2007 TGmb

24 IEEE Timeline (continued) TGah TGad TGac TGae TGaf TGaa TGs Tgu TGv TGz TGp Mar 29, 2012 TGmb TGai TGm k r y w n p z v u-2011

25 Emerging Specifications 25 Amendment Specification Transmission rate 11ac 11ad 11af 11ah 11ai Communication range Expected completion User velocity Dec/13 Oct/12 Done Jun/14 Jan/16 Up to 5 km n/ac rates scaled to channel Up to 6.8 Gbps Fast initialization (target 100 ms) Up to 6.9 Gbps 10 m at 1 Gbps > 100 kbps 1 km Mar/14 Overview Target: km/h High Throughput w/ wider channels High Throughput in 60 GHz band Wi-Fi on TV White Space Sub 1 GHz Wi-Fi for mobile 11aq Select AP that provides needed services ? Pre-association Discovery

26 Future Additional Allocation of 5 GHz Spectrum New FCC initiative Sec UNLICENSED USE IN THE 5 GHZ BAND – Allows unlicensed U–NII devices to operate in the 5350–5470 MHz band – Adds 120 MHz for use by a/n/ac devices operating in the 5 GHz band – Later to allow operation in the 5850–5925 MHz band, an additional 75 MHz a and n channels in the 5 GHz band chan # center (MHz)

27 Summary of High level of investment and focus Most advanced technology – First with OFDM and MIMO – Widest channels (80 and 160 MHz wide) Technology is spreading beyond LAN into MAN (802.11ah/af), NAN (smart grid),WAN (carrier networks) and PAN Greatest economies of scale bringing low cost of devices 27 LAN = local area networking MAN = metropolitan area networking PAN = personal area networking NAN = neighborhood area networks

28 Next Session Part II: MIMO or SISO? Wireless Design Considerations and Trade-offs Tuesday, January 15 th pm EST 28 Visit octoScope publications for more materialoctoScope publications


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