Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 8 Operating Regulations. Chapter 8 Operating Regulations Today’s agenda Control operators Guest operating and privileges Identification on the.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Operating Regulations. Chapter 8 Operating Regulations Today’s agenda Control operators Guest operating and privileges Identification on the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Operating Regulations

2 Chapter 8 Operating Regulations Today’s agenda Control operators Guest operating and privileges Identification on the air Tactical Call Signs Rules about interference Third-party communications

3 Chapter 8 Operating Regulations Today’s agenda (Continued) Remote and automatic control Prohibited communications Broadcasting

4 Chapter 8 Control Operators All transmissions from an amateur radio station must be made under the control of a properly licensed operator who is responsible for making sure that all FCC rules are followed. That operator is the station’s control operator. There can only be one control operator for a station at a time. The control operator is responsible for station operation, no matter who is actually speaking in the microphone, sending Morse code or using a keyboard to send digital signals.

5 Chapter 8 Control Operators A control operator is the amateur designated to be responsible for making sure that all transmissions from the station comply with FCC rules. The control operator does not have to be the station licensee and doesn’t have to be physically present at the transmitter in some cases. The control operator is responsible for all amateur transmissions from the from the station. The station licensee is responsible for designating the control operator.

6 Chapter 8 Control Operators A control operator must be: Named in the FCC amateur license database or Be an alien (a citizen of another country - not E.T.) with reciprocal operating authorization. Any licensed amateur can be a control operator [within the limits of the privileges of their current license]

7 Chapter 8 Control Operators The control point is where the control function is performed. Usually, the control point is at the transmitter and the control operator manipulates the controls of the transmitter. The control point can be remotely located and connected by phone lines, the Internet or a radio link.

8 Chapter 8 Control Operators As the control operator, you may operate the station in any way permitted by the privileges of your license. It doesn’t matter what the station owner’s privileges are, only the privileges of the control operator. Being a guest operator is very common – you may allow another amateur to use your station or you may be the guest. In either case you need to understand what sets the control operator’s privileges. Privileges & Guest Operating

9 Chapter 8 Control Operators Privileges & Guest Operating Joe (KA2JUQ) has a Technician class license and visit’s Mary (WN4FUI) who has an Amateur extra license. If Mary is the control operator, Joe can operate Mary’s station using Mary’s call sign on any amateur frequency using all of Mary’s license privileges. Mary must be present to perform the control operator responsibilities while Joe is operating her station.

10 Chapter 8 Control Operators Privileges & Guest Operating If Mary has to go to the store, she can tell Joe that he can be the control operator of her station. As the control operator of Mary’s station Joe may operate her station only within the limits of his Technician class license privileges. If Mary does not tell Joe that he can be the control operator, Joe may not legally operate Mary’s station.

11 Chapter 8 Control Operators Privileges & Guest Operating Mary (WN4FUI) who has an Amateur Extra class license visit’s Joe (KA2JUQ) who has a Technician class license. If Joe “lends” Mary his station (Mary is not the control operator), Mary can operate Joe’s station using all of her Amateur Extra class license privileges. In this case there are some unique identification rules that apply.

12 Chapter 8 Control Operators Privileges & Guest Operating Because Mary (WN4FUI) has the higher class license and is “borrowing” a lower class licensee’s station (KA2JUQ), she must identify herself in the following manner when using her unique license privileges (e.g., those privileges not available to Joe because he has a Technician class license): Phone: This is KA2JUQ stroke WN4FUI CW/Digital: DE KA2JUQ/WN4FUI When operating Joe’s station using VHF or UHF Mary only has to identify using Joe’s call sign.

13 Chapter 8 Control Operators Privileges & Guest Operating Regardless of license class, BOTH the guest operator and station owner are responsible for proper operation of the station. The control operator is responsible for the station’s transmissions and the station owner is responsible for limiting access to the station to responsible licensees. The FCC will presume the station licensee to be the control operator unless there is a written record of who is the control operator.

14 Chapter 8 Control Operators Unlicensed “Operators” There is nothing wrong with an unlicensed person operating an amateur radio station as long as a control operator is present when any transmissions are made. Unlicensed persons may operate an amateur radio station only within the limits of the license privileges granted to the control operator. The control operator must always be present and ensuring that all FCC rules are obeyed.

15 Chapter 8 Identification Every time you say or send your call sign over the air, you are identifying your station. Unidentified transmissions are not allowed, no matter how brief. Unidentified means that no call sign was associated with a transmission. If you need to make a test transmission to check your antenna, radio, etc., just speaking your call sign is all that is needed. Normal Identification

16 Chapter 8 Identification Keying your transmitter to check if your signal is reaching the repeater is called “kerchunking” because of the sound the repeater makes. If you don’t give your call sign you’ve sent an unidentified transmission. Just say your call sign and you’ll be legal. You must give your call sign at least once every 10 minutes during a contact (including test transmissions) and when the contact is ended. Not required at the beginning Not required to say the other station’s call sign but it’s considered to be “good practice” Normal Identification

17 Chapter 8 Identification A “ LID ” is a derogatory term to describe an amateur radio operator who is inept at the practice of the practice/art in the amateur radio service. You might be considered to be a “ LID ” if you say: “This is KA2JUQ for ID” {giving your call is all that’s necessary} or “This is KA2JUQ on the 105 machine” {You don’t need to tell me you’re on the 105 machine because if I can hear you I already know you’re on the 105 machine. If I can’t hear you, what difference does it make?} Normal Identification

18 Chapter 8 Identification You can identify your station by Morse code, by voice, or in an image. Video and digital call signs must be sent via a standard protocol or format. You may talk to anyone via amateur radio using a foreign language. However you must identify your station in English. The FCC recommends the use of phonetics when you identify by voice which avoid confusing letters that sound alike. You may also identify by CW (Morse code) even if using voice. Normal Identification

19 Chapter 8 Identification Normal Identification International Phonetics AAlphaHHotelOOscarVVictor BBravoIIndiaPPapaWWhiskey CCharlieJJulietQQuebecXX-Ray DDeltaKKiloRRomeoYYankee EEchoLLimaSSierraZZulu FFoxtrotMMikeTTango GGolfNNovemberUUniform

20 Chapter 8 Identification Tactical Call Signs Tactical call signs are used to help identify where a station is and what it is doing. Water Stop Three (KA2JUQ) this is Net Control (WN4FUI) Shelter Three (KA2JUQ) this is EOC (WN4FUI) Tactical calls can be used any time but are usually used druing emergency and public service operations.

21 Chapter 8 Identification Tactical Call Signs Tactical call signs don’t actually replace your call sign because the regular identification rules apply Every 10 minutes and At the end of the contact Water Stop Three this is Net Control. The ambulance will arrive in five minutes. KB3ATI This is Water Stop Three. QSL Net Control. AA3RR

22 Chapter 8 Identification Tactical Call Signs In the previous example “Water Stop Three” and “Net Control” are Tactical Call Signs. KB3ATI and AA3RR are the actual call signs of the operators who are currently operating the “Water Stop Three” and “Net Control” stations.

23 Chapter 8 Identification Self-Assigned Indicators FCC Part (c) states: One or more indicators may be included with the call sign. Each indicator must be separated from the call sign by the slant bar (/) or by any suitable word that denotes the slant bar. If an indicator is self-assigned, it must be included before, after, or both before and after, the call sign. If AA3RR from Maryland is operating in Ohio, he would indicate that by saying: “AA3RR portable (or mobile) in Ohio.

24 Chapter 8 Identification Self-Assigned Indicators If using Morse or Digital modes it would look like this: If AA3RR from Maryland is operating in Ohio, he would indicate that by saying: “AA3RR/OH = Portable in Ohio AA3RR/Mob/OH = Mobile in Ohio

25 Chapter 8 Identification Self-Assigned Indicators FCC Part (c) also states: No self-assigned indicator may conflict with any other indicator specified by the FCC Rules or with any prefix assigned to another country. AA3RR/ M The “ M ” is incorrectly used on CW or Digital to indicate AA3RR is operating as a mobile station. In fact, using “M” would indicate AA3RR was portable in England because “M” is an allocated prefix for England.

26 Chapter 8 Identification Self-Assigned Indicators FCC Part (c) also states: No self-assigned indicator may conflict with any other indicator specified by the FCC Rules or with any prefix assigned to another country. W3VPR/ R The “ R ” is incorrectly used on CW or Digital to indicate W3VPR is a repeater station. In fact, using “ R ” would indicate W3VPR was portable in Russia because RAA - RZZ is allocated to the Russian Federation. So why don’t we follow the rules?

27 Chapter 8 Identification Self-Assigned Indicators FCC Part (f) states that when the control operator who is using his/her new privileges as the result of a successful upgrade and that upgrade does not yet appear in the FCC data base, an indicator must be included after the call sign as follows: Upgrade from Novice to Technician Class: KT Upgrade from Novice, Technician to General Class: AG Upgrade from Novice, Technician, General, or Advanced Class operator to Amateur Extra Class: AE

28 Chapter 8 Identification Self-Assigned Indicators When using voice you would say: WN4FUI temporary (or interim) KT or AG or AE It’s recommended that you use phonetics to identify the indicator (Kilo Tango, Alpha Golf or Alpha Echo) When using Morse or Digital you would send: WN4FUI/ KT WN4FUI/ AG WN4FUI/ AE

29 Chapter 8 Identification Miscellaneous Identification Rules There are two exceptions to the identification rules: Remote Control Signals Signals retransmitted through “space stations”

30 Chapter 8 Identification Miscellaneous Identification Rules Remote Control Signals Controlling a model craft (e.g., airplane, boat, etc) You don’t send your call sign Signals very weak and don’t travel far Call sign not much use Put your call sign, name and address on the transmitter.

31 Chapter 8 Identification Miscellaneous Identification Rules Signals retransmitted through “space stations” Space stations are amateur stations located more than 50 km above the Earth’s surface. Amateur Satellites International Space Station Space Shuttle

32 Chapter 8 Identification Miscellaneous Identification Rules Space stations do not have to identify themselves The International Space Station has two Amateur radio stations on board: NA1SS - USA RU0SS – Russian Federation

33 Chapter 8 Identification Test Transmissions The rules governing identification apply to test transmissions as well. Once every 10 minutes At the end of the testing Kept brief to avoid interfering with other stations Using voice - “KA2JUQ testing” Using Morse or CW – “KA2JUQ VVV VVV”

34 Chapter 8 Identification Automatic Identification Stations under automatic control must also identify themselves. Repeaters most common example Repeaters identify themselves in several ways Voice Morse (20 WPM or slower) Image using standard video signal format

35 Chapter 8 Identification Special Event Stations When operating with a “Special Event Call Sign” (1 x 1 format) Both the special event call sign and the usual call sign of the amateur or club who requested the special event call sign must be given on-the-air. Special Event Call Sign – Every 10 minutes and at the end of a communication. Call of club or amateur who applied for the special event call sign – Once an hour.

36 Chapter 8 Interference

37 Chapter 8 Interference Interference is caused by “noise” and by “signals”. Noise interference is caused by natural sources such as thunderstorms (QR N = “natural”) or unintentional signals radiated by appliances, industrial equipment, or computing equipment. Interference from nearby amateur signals (QR M = “man made”)

38 Chapter 8 Interference Most interference is manageable. Hams have learned various way of dealing with QRM including the following: Common sense and courtesy Use of good filters to reject interference Remember that no one owns a frequency Be aware of other activities such as “special events”, “Dxpeditions”, and “contests” (there are lots of these).

39 Chapter 8 Interference Interference is caused by “noise” and by “signals”. Noise interference is caused by natural sources such as thunderstorms (QR N = “natural”) or unintentional signals radiated by appliances, industrial equipment, or computing equipment. Interference from nearby amateur signals (QR M = “man made”) is a price we pay for getting more people into the hobby. More people operating on the bands will result in more interference from amateur signals. More hams or less signals?

40 Chapter 8 Interference Harmful Interference Harmful interference is defined as a transmission that seriously degrades, obstructs or repeatedly interrupts the communications of a regulated service. Every ham should make sure to transmit and receive in a way that minimizes the possibility of causing harmful interference. If you receive reports of interference from you such as transmitting off-frequency or generating spurious signals (“splatter”, harmonics, etc.) check your equipment.

41 Chapter 8 Interference Harmful Interference When testing equipment, use a “Dummy Load” and keep your transmissions short. Be flexible! If you cause interference, apologize, identify and take the necessary steps to reduce interference --- change freq, reduce power, and/or change the direction of your antenna if possible.

42 Chapter 8 Interference Willful Interference If you intentionally create harmful interference, that is called willful interference and willful interference is never allowed. No matter how you do it (e.g., intentionally over-modulating, transmitting spurious signals, transmitting music, belching, etc.) intentionally interfering or obstructing radio communications is against the law.

43 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications This concept is often misunderstood even among the “old timers” in our hobby. Amateur radio is often used to send messages (Written and oral) on behalf of unlicensed persons or organizations. This is one of the oldest activities in ham radio. We relay messages from station to station until they are delivered by a ham near the addressee. This is third-party communications.

44 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications Because third-party communications bypass the normal telephone and postal services, many foreign governments want to control it for several reasons. The FCC doesn’t want the Amateur Radio Service to become a non-commercial messaging system. Naturally, we have some rules that address third-party communications. We also need to be clear on what is and is not third-party communications. It’s not rocket science.

45 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications Definitions & Rules The person or organization on whose behalf a message is sent is the “third party” A licensed amateur capable of being a control operator at either station is not considered a “third party”. Just because you can be the control operator on 2-meters does not exclude you from being a “third party”.

46 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications Definitions & Rules The “third party” does not have to be present at either station. A message can be taken to a ham station or A ham can transmit speech from a third party’s telephone call over the ham radio - “Phone Patch”. Over.

47 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications Definitions & Rules The communications transmitted on behalf of the “third- party” are not limited to written text. Spoken words Data Images An organization such as a church or a school can be a “third-party”.

48 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications Definitions & Rules The “third party” may participate in transmitting or receiving the message at either station. An unlicensed person sends third-party communications when they speak into the microphone, send Morse code or type on a keyboard (Digital).

49 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications Definitions & Rules The “third party” may participate in transmitting or receiving the message at either station. An licensed amateur sends third-party communications when they speak into the microphone, send Morse code or type on a keyboard (Digital) on a frequency beyond their current license privileges. For example: A Novice operating on 2m A Tech operating on 20m A General operating on the Extra portion of 80m Phone If you can’t be the control operator on the frequency in use you are a “third party”.

50 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications Definitions & Rules Third-party communications may be exchanged between any stations operating under FCC rules with the constraint that the communications must be noncommercial and of a personal nature. When radio signals cross borders, the rules change. International third-party communications are restricted to those 50 countries/entities that specifically allow third-party communications with U.S. hams.

51 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications Definitions & Rules Let’s recap… Example #1 A message from one ham to another is not third-party communications, whether transmitted directly or relayed by other stations. Mary (WN4FUI) contacts Paul (KA2JUQ) and asks him to deliver a birthday greeting to Ryan (KB3DVA).

52 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications Definitions & Rules Example #2 Mary (WN4FUI and an Amateur Extra) lets Paul (KA2JUQ and a Technician) make a contact with Ryan (KB3DVA) on 20m.

53 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications Definitions & Rules Example #3 Freddy (G4FUI) contacts Paul (KA2JUQ) on 15m and asks him to deliver a birthday greeting to Ryan (KB3DVA) in Florida. Third-party communications? Allowed?

54 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications Definitions & Rules Example #4 Mary (WN4FUI) lets Paul (unlicensed) make a contact with Ryan (KB3DVA).

55 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications Definitions & Rules Example #4 Mary (WN4FUI) lets Paul (unlicensed) make a contact with Ryan (KB3DVA).

56 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications Antigua and BarbudaChileEl Salvador ArgentinaColombiaGambia, The Australia Comoros (The Federal Islamic Republic of) Ghana BelizeCosta RicaGrenada BoliviaCubaGuatemala Bosnia-HerzegovinaDominicaGuyana BrazilDominican RepublicHaiti CanadaEcuadorHonduras

57 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications IsraelNicaraguaSt. Lucia JamaicaPanamaSt. Vincent and the Grenadines JordanParaguaySierra Leone LiberiaPeruSouth Africa Marshall IslandsPhilippinesSwaziland MexicoPitcairn IslandTrinidad and Tobago Micronesia, Federated States of St. Christopher and Nevis Turkey

58 Chapter 8 Third-Party Communications United Kingdom (special event stations with call sign prefix GB followed by a number other than 3) Uruguay Venezuela United Nations (4U1ITU) in Geneva, Switzerland United Nations (4U1VIC) in Vienna, Austria. Bottom Line: If you’re in contact with a ham in a country/entity that is not on the list above, you MAY NOT engage in any third-party communications with that ham.

59 Chapter 8 Remote & Automatic Control Many stations such as repeaters and beacons operate without human control operators. It is becoming common to operate a station via a link over the Internet or phone lines No matter how it is done or where the control point is located, the fact remains that the station must be operated in compliance with the FCC rules at all times.

60 Chapter 8 Remote & Automatic Control Definitions Local Control – A control operator is physically present at the control point. This is the situation for almost all amateur stations. Any type of station can be locally controlled. Fixed – Your station at home Mobile – Your station in your vehicle Portable – Walking around with your HT

61 Chapter 8 Remote & Automatic Control Definitions Remote Operation – The control point is located away from the transmitter but a control operator is present at the control point. The control point and the transmitter are connected by a control link. Internet Phone line Radio Any station can be remotely controlled.

62 Chapter 8 Remote & Automatic Control Definitions Automatic Operation – The station operates completely under the control of devices and procedures that ensure compliance with FCC rules. A control operator is always required but does not have to be at the control point when the station is transmitting. Repeaters, beacons, and space stations [satellites] are examples of stations that are automatically controlled.

63 Chapter 8 Remote & Automatic Control Responsibilities No matter what type of control is used, the station must operate in compliance with FCC rules at all times. No ifs, ands or buts. The control operator, no matter where he/she is located relative to the transmitter, is responsible for the station’s operation.

64 Chapter 8 Remote & Automatic Control Responsibilities Repeater owners must install the necessary equipment and procedures for automatic control to ensure the repeater operates in compliance with FCC rules. If the automatic controls result in rules violations, the FCC can require a repeater to be placed on remote control which requires a control operator to be present when the repeater is operating. However, repeater users are responsible for proper operation via the repeater.

65 Chapter 8 Remote & Automatic Control Responsibilities There are special rules for automatic control when using digital protocols to operate automatically. Stations may use a data mode (including RTTY) under automatic control in specific portions of the HF bands and above 50 MHz. Data stations are the only type of automatically- controlled stations allowed to forward third-party communications. It okay to pass third-party messages over a repeater.

66 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Because radio amateurs are given wide latitude to communicate within technical and procedural rules, the FCC does not specifically prohibit very many types of transmissions. Here are four types that are prohibited: Unidentified transmissions False or deceptive signals False distress or emergency signals Obscene or indecent speech

67 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Business Communications You may not used your amateur radio in any way to conduct your business [your job] or your employer’s business. This is AMATEUR RADIO and There are plenty of communications services available for commercial activities. However, your own personal activities don’t count as “business” communications. See the next slide for examples

68 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Business Communications You may use your amateur radio for the following: Talk to your spouse about shopping or what to pick up from “the store”. You can order things over-the-air as long as you don’t do it regularly and it can’t be related to your job. You can advertise equipment for sale as long it pertains to amateur radio and is not your regular job.

69 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Business Communications Use a repeater’s autopatch to make or change a doctor’s appointment Advertise a radio for sale on a “swap and shop” net. Describe your business as part of a casual conversation.

70 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Here’s what you CANNOT do: Use a repeater’s autopatch to call a business client or to change a business appointment. Selling household or sporting goods on a “swap and shop” net. Regularly selling radio equipment at a profit over the air. Advertising your professional services over the air.

71 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions You cannot be paid for operating an amateur radio station. Exception to the rules: Teachers may use ham radio as part of their classroom instruction. Their role as a control operator of a ham station must be incidental to their job and cannot be a majority of their duties.

72 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Encrypted Transmissions One of the requirements for all of our operating privileges is that amateur radio must remain a public form of communications. Therefore, we cannot transmit secret codes or obscure the content of our transmissions in order to prevent others form receiving the information.

73 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Encrypted Transmissions Translating information into data for transmission is called “encoding” and recovering the encoded information is called “decoding”. Most forms of encoding are okay because they use a published [public] digital protocol. Any ham can look up the protocol and develop the appropriate capabilities to receive and decode data sent with that protocol.

74 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Encrypted Transmissions The use of codes or ciphers to hide the meaning of the transmitted message is called “encryption”. Recovery of the encrypted information is called “decryption”. Amateurs may use encryption techniques for radio control and control to space stations, when interception or unauthorized transmissions could have serious consequences. No other use of encryption techniques are authorized by radio amateurs.

75 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Broadcasting and Retransmission Most non-hams incorrectly refer to the transmissions of radio amateur’s as “broadcasting”. Broadcasting consists of one-way transmissions intended for reception by the general public. The radio stations you listen to in your vehicle or on your home stereo are called “broadcast stations” because they their one-way transmissions are intended for the general public. Hams are not permitted to make this type of transmission.

76 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Broadcasting and Retransmission The prohibition on broadcasting includes: Hams may not repeat or relay transmissions from other communications services. Hams may not assist or participate in news gathering by broadcasting organizations (e.g., commercial or public radio including satellite radio, commercial, public, or cable television, etc.)

77 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Broadcasting and Retransmission On-the-air code practice and bulletins for radio amateurs are permitted. However, with one exception, transmitting music via amateur radio is prohibited. This INCLUDES background music from your vehicle radio, home stereo, a CD player, etc. Turn off the music before you transmit! The exception? When music is rebroadcast as part of an AUTHORIZED rebroadcast of space station or space shuttle transmissions.

78 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Broadcasting and Retransmission Retransmitting the signals of another station is generally prohibited. Some exceptions include: You are relaying messages or digital data from another station. Repeaters, auxiliary stations and space stations are allowed to automatically retransmit signals on different frequencies or channels.

79 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Special Circumstances Ham communications must be intended for reception by hams. Hams may retransmit weather and propagation information from government stations but not on a regular basis. You may operate on a boat or from a private plane only with the approval of the Captain (The FAA prohibits all transmissions from inside the aircraft while in flight).

80 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Special Circumstances If you receive permission to operate from a boat or private airplane you cannot use any on-board radio systems (e.g., the radio equipment normally used by the crew of the boat or plane). You must bring your own equipment. Amateur communications may not interfere with any of the on-board communications systems including navigation equipment.

81 Chapter 8 Prohibited Transmissions Special Circumstances Normally, hams can’t communicate with non-amateur services. The FCC may allow hams to communicate with non-ham services at certain times or during declared emergencies. RACES operators may also communicate with government stations during emergencies. Once a year, the FCC permits ham-to-military communications on Armed Forces Day during May.


Download ppt "Chapter 8 Operating Regulations. Chapter 8 Operating Regulations Today’s agenda Control operators Guest operating and privileges Identification on the."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google