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Chapter 4 - 1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS... What types of defects arise in solids? Can the number and type of defects be varied and controlled? How do defects affect.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 - 1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS... What types of defects arise in solids? Can the number and type of defects be varied and controlled? How do defects affect."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 - 1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS... What types of defects arise in solids? Can the number and type of defects be varied and controlled? How do defects affect material properties? Are defects undesirable? CHAPTER 4: IMPERFECTIONS IN SOLIDS What are the solidification mechanisms?

2 Chapter 4 - 2 Solidification - result of casting of molten material( metals and alloys) the size and shape of the structure depends on the cooling rate –2 steps Nuclei form Nuclei grow to form crystals – grain structure Start with a molten material – all liquid Imperfections in Solids Crystals grow until they meet each other nuclei crystals growing grain structure liquid

3 Chapter 4 - 3 Polycrystalline Materials Grain Boundaries regions between crystals transition from lattice of one region to that of the other slightly disordered low density in grain boundaries –high mobility –high diffusivity –high chemical reactivity

4 Chapter 4 - 4 Solidification Columnar in area with less undercooling Shell of equiaxed grains due to rapid cooling (greater  T) near wall Grain Refiner - added to make smaller, more uniform, equiaxed grains. heat flow Grains can be- equiaxed (roughly same size in all directions) - columnar (elongated grains) ~ 8 cm

5 Chapter 4 - 5 Imperfections in Solids There is no such thing as a perfect crystal. What are these imperfections? Why are they important? Many of the important properties of materials are due to the presence of imperfections.

6 Chapter 4 - 6 Vacancy atoms Interstitial atoms Impurities defects ( for solid solution) Types of Imperfections Line defects ( dislocation) Edge dislocation Screw dislocation mixed dislocation Point defects

7 Chapter 4 - 7 Planar defects (interfacial defects) external surfaces, grain boundaries, twin boundaries, stacking fault anti phase boundaries Bulk defects ( volume defects) Voids are small regions where there are no atoms, and can be thought of as clusters of vacancies. Impurities can cluster together to form small regions of a different phase. These are often called precipitates.

8 Chapter 4 - 8 Vacancies: -vacant atomic sites in a structure. Self-Interstitials: -"extra" atoms positioned between atomic sites. Point Defects Vacancy distortion of planes self- interstitial distortion of planes

9 Chapter 4 - 9 Impurities defects: Substitutional or interstitial - Substitutional : impurity atoms type A substitutional atoms type B in structure - Interstitial : atoms type A fill the voids or interstices among the atoms type B interstitial substit

10 Chapter 4 - 10 Boltzmann's constant (1.38 x 10 -23 J/atom-K) (8.62 x 10 -5 eV/atom-K)  N v N  exp  Q v kT       Equil.No. of defects Total No. of atomic sites Activation energy Temperature Equilibrium concentration varies with temperature! Equilibrium Concentration: Point Defects

11 Chapter 4 - 11 We can get Q v from an experiment.  N v N = exp  Q v kT       Measuring Activation Energy Measure this... N v N T exponential dependence! defect concentration Replot it... 1/T N N v ln - Q v /k/k slope

12 Chapter 4 - 12 Find the equil. # of vacancies in 1 m 3 of Cu at 1000  C. Given: A Cu = 63.5 g/mol  = 8.4 g/cm 3 Q v = 0.9 eV/atom N A = 6.02 x 10 23 atoms/mol Estimating Vacancy Concentration For 1 m 3, N = N A A Cu  x x1 m 3 = 8.0 x 10 28 sites 8.62 x 10 -5 eV/atom-K 0.9 eV/atom 1273K  N v N  exp  Q v kT       = 2.7 x 10 -4 Answer: N v =(2.7 x 10 -4 )(8.0 x 10 28 ) sites = 2.2 x 10 25 vacancies

13 Chapter 4 - 13 Low energy electron microscope view of a (110) surface of NiAl. Increasing T causes surface island of atoms to grow. Why? The equil. vacancy conc. increases via atom motion from the crystal to the surface, where they join the island. Observing Equilibrium Vacancy Conc. Island grows/shrinks to maintain equil. vancancy conc. in the bulk.

14 Chapter 4 - Point Defects in solid solution SOLID SOLUTIONS: A solid solution forms when, as the solute atoms are added to the solvent atoms, the crystal structure is maintained, and no new structures are formed. Solvent (host atoms):represents the element or compound that is present in the greatest Solute: is used to denote an element or compound present in a minor concentration. It is dissolved in the solvent. 14

15 Chapter 4 - 15 There are several features of the solute and solvent atoms that determine the degree to which the former dissolves in the latter; these are as follows(for perfect solid solution) 1.Atomic size factor: Δr less than 15% for solute and solvent 2.Crystal structure: must be the same for both 3.Electro-negativity: the more element and the more e.positiv. Another for good solid solution 4.Valences: Other factors being equal, a metal will have more of a tendency to dissolve another metal of higher valency than one of a lower valency.

16 Chapter 4 - 16 Two outcomes if impurity (B) added to host (A): Solid solution of B in A (i.e., random dist. of point defects) Solid solution of B in A plus particles of a new phase (usually for a larger amount of B) OR Substitutional solid soln. (e.g., Cu in Ni) Interstitial solid soln. (e.g., C in Fe) Second phase particle --different composition --often different structure. Point Defects in solid solution

17 Chapter 4 - 17 Imperfections in Solids Conditions for substitutional solid solution (S.S.) W. Hume – Rothery rule –1. ( atomic size factor)  r (atomic radius) < 15% –2. Proximity in periodic table i.e., similar electronegativities –3. Same crystal structure for pure metals of both atoms type –4. Valency ex. of substitu. solid solution copper and nickel

18 Chapter 4 - 18 Ex. of substitu. solid solution copper and nickel r =.125 nm both have FCC crystal structure electronegat. = 1.9 valences +2 for both Ex. Of interstit. Solid solution is carbon added to iron r of C << r of iron the maximum concent. Of C in iron is less than 10%

19 Chapter 4 - 19 Imperfections in Solids Application of Hume–Rothery rules – Solid Solutions 1. Would you predict more Al or Ag to dissolve in Zn? 2. More Zn or Al in Cu? ElementAtomicCrystalElectro-Valence Radius Structure nega- (nm) tivity Cu0.1278FCC1.9+2 C0.071 H0.046 O0.060 Ag0.1445FCC1.9+1 Al0.1431FCC1.5+3 Co0.1253HCP1.8+2 Cr0.1249BCC1.6+3 Fe0.1241BCC1.8+2 Ni0.1246FCC1.8+2 Pd0.1376FCC2.2+2 Zn0.1332HCP1.6+2

20 Chapter 4 - 20 Imperfections in Solids Specification of composition( or concentration of alloy in terms of its constituent elements) –weight percent m 1 = mass of component 1 n m1 = number of moles of component 1 – atom percent

21 Chapter 4 - problem What is the composition, in atom percent of an alloy that contains 33 g copper and 47 g zinc? Solution: first becomes necessary to compute the number of moles of both Cu and Zn, Thus, the number of moles of Cu is just 21 Likewise, for Zn

22 Chapter 4 - 22 now also

23 Chapter 4 - problem2 What is the composition, in atom percent, of an alloy that consists of 5.5 wt% Pb and 94.5 wt% Sn(tin)? Solution: 23

24 Chapter 4 - 24 are line defects, slip between crystal planes result when dislocations move, produce permanent (plastic) deformation. Dislocations: Schematic of Zinc (HCP): before deformation after tensile elongation slip steps Line Defects

25 Chapter 4 - 25 Imperfections in Solids Linear Defects (Dislocations) –Are one-dimensional defects around which atoms are misaligned Edge dislocation: –extra half-plane of atoms inserted in a crystal structure –b  to dislocation line Screw dislocation: –spiral planar ramp resulting from shear deformation –b  to dislocation line Burger’s vector, b: measure of lattice distortion

26 Chapter 4 - 26 Imperfections in Solids Fig. 4.3, Callister 7e. Edge Dislocation

27 Chapter 4 - 27 Dislocation motion requires the successive bumping of a half plane of atoms (from left to right here). Bonds across the slipping planes are broken and remade in succession. Atomic view of edge dislocation motion from left to right as a crystal is sheared. Motion of Edge Dislocation

28 Chapter 4 - 28 Imperfections in Solids Screw Dislocation Burgers vector b Dislocation line b (a) (b) Screw Dislocation

29 Chapter 4 - 29 Edge, Screw, and Mixed Dislocations Edge Screw Mixed

30 Chapter 4 - 30 Imperfections in Solids Dislocations are visible in electron micrographs

31 Chapter 4 - 31 Dislocations & Crystal Structures Structure: close-packed planes & directions are preferred. view onto two close-packed planes. close-packed plane (bottom)close-packed plane (top) close-packed directions Comparison among crystal structures: FCC: many close-packed planes/directions; HCP: only one plane, 3 directions; BCC: none Specimens that were tensile tested. Mg (HCP) Al (FCC) tensile direction

32 Chapter 4 - Surface energy 32

33 Chapter 4 - Planar (interfacial)Defects in Solids External surfaces one of most obvious boundaries, along which the crystal structure terminates. Surface atoms are not bonded to the maximum number of nearest neighbors, and are therefore in a higher energy state than the atoms at interior positions Grain boundaries occur where the crystallographic direction of the lattice abruptly changes. This usually occurs when two crystals begin growing separately and then meet. 33

34 Chapter 4 - 34 Planar Defects in Solids twin boundary (plane) –Essentially a reflection of atom positions across the twin plane. there is a specific mirror lattice symmetry; that is, atoms on one side of the boundary are located in mirror-image positions of the atoms on the other side. The region of material between these boundaries is appropriately termed a twin

35 Chapter 4 - 35 Stacking faults: occur in a number of crystal structures, but the common example is in close-packed structures. Face centered cubic (FCC) structures differ from hexagonal close packed (HCP) structures only in stacking order For FCC metals an error in ABCABC packing sequence Ex: ABCABABC Anti phase boundaries: occur in ordered alloys: in this case, the crystallographic direction remains the same, each side of the boundary has an opposite phase: For example if the ordering is usually ABABABAB, an anti phase boundary takes the form of ABABBABA

36 Chapter 4 - problem For each of the following stacking sequences found in FCC metals, cite the type of planar defect that exists: a) …..A B C A B C B A C B A b)……A B C A B C B C A B C 36

37 Chapter 4 - 37 Solution: a) The interfacial defect that exists for this stacking sequence is a twin boundary, which occurs at the indicated position The stacking sequence on one side of this position is mirrored on the other side b) The interfacial defect that exists within this FCC stacking sequence is a stacking fault, which occurs between the two lines. Within this region, the stacking sequence is HCP.

38 Chapter 4 - Bulk(volume) defects These include pores, cracks, foreign inclusions, and other phases. They are normally introduced during processing and fabrication steps Voids are small regions where there are no atoms, and can be thought of as clusters of vacancies. Impurities can cluster together to form small regions of a different phase. These are often called precipitates. 38

39 Chapter 4 - 39 Microscopic Examination Crystallites (grains) and grain boundaries. Vary considerably in size. Can be quite large –ex: Large single crystal of diamond –ex: Aluminum light garbage can see the individual grains Crystallites (grains) can be quite small (mm or less) – necessary to observe with a microscope.

40 Chapter 4 - Microscopic Examination Several important applications of micro-structural examinations are as follows: To ensure that the association between the properties and structure ( and defects ) are properly understood To predict the properties of materials once these relationship have been established To design the alloys with new property combinations To determine whether or not a material has been correctly heat treated To ascertain the mode of mechanical fracture 40

41 Chapter 4 - 41 Useful up to 2000X magnification. Polishing removes surface features (e.g., scratches) Etching changes reflectance, depending on crystal orientation. Micrograph of brass (a Cu-Zn alloy) 0.75mm Optical Microscopy crystallographic planes the chemical reactivity of the grains of some single-phase materials depends on crystallographic orientation

42 Chapter 4 - 42 Grain boundaries... are imperfections, are more susceptible to etching, may be revealed as dark lines, change in crystal orientation across boundary. Optical Microscopy Fe-Cr alloy (b) grain boundary surface groove polished surface (a)

43 Chapter 4 - 43 Optical Microscopy Polarized light –metallographic scopes often use polarized light to increase contrast –Also used for transparent samples such as polymers

44 Chapter 4 - 44 Microscopy Optical resolution ca. 10 -7 m = 0.1  m = 100 nm For higher resolution need higher frequency –X-Rays? Difficult to focus. –Electrons wavelengths ca. 3 pm (0.003 nm) –(Magnification - 1,000,000X) Atomic resolution possible Electron beam focused by magnetic lenses.

45 Chapter 4 - 45 Atoms can be arranged and imaged! Carbon monoxide molecules arranged on a platinum (111) surface. Iron atoms arranged on a copper (111) surface. These Kanji characters represent the word “atom”. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)

46 Chapter 4 - 46 Point, Line, and Area defects exist in solids. The number and type of defects can be varied and controlled (e.g., T controls vacancy conc.) Defects affect material properties (e.g., grain boundaries control crystal slip). Defects may be desirable or undesirable (e.g., dislocations may be good or bad, depending on whether plastic deformation is desirable or not.) Summary

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