Presentation on theme: "T1-1 Chapter 1 – FCC Rules Electromagnetic Spectrum Why is there Amateur Radio? The Amateur Service Amateur License Classes The Technician Exam Frequency."— Presentation transcript:
T1-1 Chapter 1 – FCC Rules Electromagnetic Spectrum Why is there Amateur Radio? The Amateur Service Amateur License Classes The Technician Exam Frequency Privileges Frequency Sharing Call Signs Operating Guidelines
T1-2 Radio Frequency Spectrum 100kHz 1MHz10MHz100MHz1GHz10GHz100GHz 10kHz 1THz MFHFVHFUHFSHFEHF AMFM 300kHz300GHz Television 2-6 7-13 UHF SW LF Radar bands Audible VLF 010Hz100Hz1kHz10kHz100kHz1MHz10MHz100MHz1GHz10GHz100GHz1THz VLFLFMFHFVHFUHFSHFEHF InfraredVisibleUltravioletX-rayGammaCosmic
T1-3 Radio Spectrum Regulation The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) allocates radio frequency allocations on an international basis. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocates frequency bands to services in the U.S. –Title 47 of Code of Federal Regulations governs all telecommunications in the U.S. –Part 97 describes amateur radio operation standards, technical standards and emergency communications.
T1-4 The Five Principles 97.1(a) Recognition and enhancement of the value of the amateur service to the public as a voluntary non-commercial communication service, particularly with respect to providing emergency communications. 97.1(b) Continuation and extension of the amateur’s proven ability to contribute to the advancement of the radio art. 97.1(c) Encouragement and improvement of the amateur service through rules which provide for advancing skills in both the communications and technical phases of the art. 97.1(d) Expansion of the existing reservoir with the amateur radio service of trained operators, technicians and electronics experts. 97.1(e) Continuation and extension of the amateur’s unique ability to enhance international goodwill. FCC Rules Section 97.1
T1-5 The Amateur Service Amateur Service –A radio communication service for the purpose of self- training, intercommunication and technical investigations carried out by persons interested in radio technique solely for personal aim and without pecuniary interest. Amateur Operator –Person who has been granted a license in the amateur service Amateur Station –Station licensed in the amateur service
T1-6 Operator/Primary Station License Amateur service license includes both operator and station license. Operator license provides authority to operate an amateur station Station license authorizes operation of your primary or main amateur station –Provides station mail address and call sign License is valid for 10 year period –Two year grace period for expired licenses –Renewal by mail or on-line
T1-8 Amateur License Classes License ClassCode TestWritten Exam ExtraElement 1 5 wpm Elements 2,3,4 AdvancedNo Longer Issued GeneralElement 1 5 wpm Element 2,3 Technician With Morse Code Credit Element 1 5 wpm Element 2 TechnicianNoneElement 2 NoviceNo Longer Issued
T1-9 The Technician Exam Element 2 consists of a 35 question written test –Question pool is selected by Volunteer Examiner Coordinators (VECs) –Exam is given by Volunteer Examiners (VEs) –All questions are multiple choice –26 questions (70%) must be answered correctly to pass Results of the exam are provided to the FCC on form NCVEC Quick Form 605
T1-10 Frequency Privileges Federal Communications Commission (FCC) sets radio regulations for United States International Telecommunication Union (ITU) coordinates regulations around the world –ITU Region 1: Africa, Europe, Russia and parts of Middle East –ITU Region 2: North and South America, Caribbean Islands and Hawaii –ITU Region 3: Australia, China, India and parts of Middle East. Also includes Pacific Islands.
T1-11 Frequency Sharing The FCC encourages interference-free sharing of the ham bands by limiting transmitter output power, assigning services as either primary or secondary status and encouraging repeaters to be coordinated. –Primary service on a band is protected from interference caused by other radio services. –Secondary service must not cause harmful interference to, and must accept interference from, stations in the primary service.
T1-12 Call Signs FCC issues call signs on a systematic basis. The first letter of a US call sign will always be A, K, N or W. US call signs contain a single number 0-9 –One or two letters prior to number are the prefix –One to three letters following number are the suffix The number in a call sign indicates the district that the call was first issued. Amateurs can select specific calls through use of the Vanity Call Sign system.
T1-14 Call Sign Groups GroupFormatsLicense ClassExamples Group A“1 by 2” “2 by 1” ExtraKØAA, WØAA, NØAA, WAØA Group B“2 by 2”Advanced, ExtraAAØAA, KAØAA Group C“1 by 3”Technician, General, Advanced, Extra KØAAA, NØAAA, WØAAA Group D“2 by 3”AllKAØAAA
T1-15 Points of Communication As an amateur operator, you can communicate with all amateur radio stations at any time unless specifically prohibited by a foreign government. A reciprocal operating authority agreement allows amateurs visiting other countries to operate during the visit. The FCC must authorize amateur communication with stations not licensed in the amateur service. FCC rules permit amateur stations to communicate with other radio services during emergencies.
T1-16 Broadcasting Amateur stations may not engage in broadcasting or transmission of information intended for reception by the general public. Amateur stations may transmit one-way communications while in beacon operation or radio-control operation.
T1-17 Business Communications Amateur communication is non-commercial radio communication between amateur stations, solely with a personal aim and without pecuniary interest or business reasons. No one can use an amateur station for monetary gain. –Exceptions are: 1) paying a control operator at a club station to transmit code practice or bulletins and 2) paid teachers using amateur radio as a part of classroom instruction
T1-18 Other Rules Amateur stations may not: Transmit music except when incidental part of NASA transmissions Use obscene or indecent language Use codes or ciphers Cause malicious (harmful) interference Transmit false or deceptive signals Make an unidentified transmission (without a call sign)
T1-19 Remote Control of Model Craft Remote control of model craft, or “telecommand” is permitted with the following restrictions: –Station identification is not required for transmissions directed only to the model craft. The control transmitter must have a label containing the station call sign and licensee’s name and address. –Control signals are not considered codes and ciphers. –Transmitter power cannot exceed 1 watt.
T1-20 Space and Earth Stations FCC defines a space station as an amateur station located more than 50 kilometers above Earth’s surface Orbiting Satellites Carrying Amateur Radio (OSCARs) do not have to transmit a station call sign. Earth amateur stations can communicate with space stations or other Earth stations via satellites.