Presentation on theme: "Fitness Basics Health Related Fitness Components FITT Principle"— Presentation transcript:
1Fitness Basics Health Related Fitness Components FITT Principle Cardiorespiratory fitnessMuscular strengthMuscular enduranceFlexibilityBody compositionFITT PrincipleWarm Up Cool DownBasic Principles of Fitness
2ObjectivesIdentify the five components of health-related fitness and describe the importance of each.Describe the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness and how you can improve and maintain it throughout your life.Describe the differences between muscular endurance and muscular strength.Identify basic types of stretches and their importance to overall health.Use a variety of resources to stay physically active throughout school.Understand how to stay physically active throughout your adult life.
3StandardsPEHS.1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.PEHS.2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.PEHS.3: Participates regularly in physical activity.
4Physical Activity, Exercise, and Physical Fitness Moving your bodyExerciseMoving your body for a purposePhysical fitnessA way of measuring how well the body can perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without becoming overly tired
5Physical Activity, Exercise, and Physical Fitness Skill-related fitnessInvolves agility, balance, coordination, speed, power, and reaction timeHealth-related fitnessThe ability of the body to carry out everyday activities without excessive fatigue and with enough energy left for emergencies
7FITT Principle Frequency Intensity Time Type How often you do physical activity in a weekIntensityHow hard you’re working while performing the activityTimeHow long you’re doing the activityTypeWhat type of activity you’re doing
8Warm-Up and Cool-DownThe warm-up prepares the body to gradually go from a resting state to a state of exertion or exercise.The cool-down gradually takes the body from a state of exertion or exercise back to a resting or near resting state.
9Basic Principles of Fitness OverloadMuscles adapt quickly to new requirementsProgressionTo see consistent improvements you need to progressively increase exerciseSpecificityExercise needs to target the training effect you wantReversibilityThe fitness improvements you make through physical activity aren’t permanent
10Cardiorespiratory Fitness Definition (aerobic endurance, aerobic fitness)Refers to the ability of the heart and lungs to efficiently deliver oxygen and nutrients to the muscles and cells by way of the bloodstreamCardioHeartRespiratoryLungs
11GuidelinesGoalTo expend (burn) 150 to 400 calories in physical activity per dayMinimum 1000 calories per week
12FrequencyAmerican College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends 3 to 5 days a week
13IntensityFor most people intensities within the range of 60 to 80 percent of their heart rate reserve (HRR) are good enough to bring improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (ACSM 2006)
14TimeYou need to exercise for at least 30-minutes a day at moderate intensity on 3 to 5 days of the week to get the most benefit from cardiorespiratory trainingYou can do shorter bouts--10 minutes or so--several times a day to accumulate the total recommended minutes
15Type Aerobic Anaerobic In the presence of oxygen Any type of rhythmic activity that can be sustained for at least 20 minutes and uses large muscle groups is aerobicBrisk walking, cycling, swimmingAnaerobicWithout oxygenHigh intensity activity that can’t be sustained for longSprinting, weight training
16Determining Intensity Heart rateThe higher the intensity, the higher the heart rateACSM recommends exercising at a target heart rate (THR) of 60 to 80 percent of HRR to get cardiorespiratory fitness benefits
17How do I determine my maximum heart rate and range? 220 minus your ageTo find your exercise range you need to multiply the percentage you want to exercise at by your maximum heart rate
18Muscular Strength and Endurance The capacity of the muscle to exert force against resistanceMuscular enduranceThe capacity of the muscle to exert force repeatedly against resistanceMuscle burns calories even at rest, so the more muscle you have, the more calories you burn throughout the day.Having fit muscles improves physical appearance and self-esteem.Together they allow you to perform activities of daily living with less stress, protect you from injuries, and help you maintain functional independence throughout your life.When you increase muscle mass, you increase your metabolic rate.
19Muscular Strength and Endurance Resistance TrainingExercise that uses free weights, bands, machines, and body weight to put resistance on the muscle through a full range of motion.Muscular contractions (3 types)IsometricConcentricEccentricIn the same way that cardiorespiratory training strengthens the heart, resistance training strengthens muscles and improves muscular endurance.
20Muscular Strength and Endurance Isometric contractionMuscle applying force without movingFlexing your stomach musclesConcentric contractionWhen a force is produced while the muscle shortensFlexing bicepsEccentric contractionWhen a force is produced while the muscle lengthensLowering your hand from your shoulder to your sideIsometric examples: pushing your hands together, pushing against an immovable object (wall, etc.)
21Muscular Strength and Endurance Terms:WeightAmount of resistance used during the exerciseRepetition (rep)One complete movement through a full range of motionRange of motion (ROM)Degree of movement that occurs at a jointSetA series of repetitionsRest timeAmount of time between sets
22General GuidelinesStrength training programs should focus on major muscle groups such as back, shoulders, chest, arms, hips, legs, abdominal musclesYou should not hold your breath while liftingInhale on the easier part of the contraction, exhale on the harder part
23FrequencyYou should exercise each muscle group 2 or 3 nonconsecutive days per weekAllow at least 48 hours of rest before returning to a muscle group so you don’t injure the muscles from overuseMuscles become stronger during the rest and recuperation phase
24IntensityYou need to overload the muscle with more than it’s used to in order to coax a training effect from the bodyWays to change the intensityVarying the amount of weight usedNumber of repetitionsSpeed of movementRest periodsAccording to the overload principle, muscle adapts quickly and has to be oontinually overloaded for progress to continue
25Intensity 1-repetition maximum (1RM) Maximum amount of weight you can lift for no more than 1 full repYour training goal determines intensityStrength & Power6 or fewer 70-90% of 1RMMuscle mass% of 1RMMuscular enduranceMore than 12 less than 67% of 1RM
26TimeEach repetition should take about 6 seconds total--3 for concentric, 3 for eccentricAllow enough rest time between exercises to be able to perform the next exercise with proper form
27TypePerform a minimum of 8-10 exercises to train all the major muscle groups of the bodyRemember to switch muscle groups so you’re not training the same muscles in the same 48 hours
28Flexibility Definition Makes everyday movements easier The ability to move a joint through its full ROMMakes everyday movements easierStiffness can cause older people to assume unnatural body positions, which can lead to back, neck, or shoulder pain.Important to stretch when lifting. As a muscle grows stronger, the tiny tears that were created during weight training grow back stronger which makes the muscle tighter and starts to decrease the ROM through the joint. Can sheer muscle mass decrease one’s ROM?
29GuidelinesThe best way to improve flexibility is to do regular stretching exercises.Focus on major muscle groups when stretching (back, shoulders, chest, arms, hips, legs, abdomen)
30FrequencyYou should stretch a minimum of 2 or 3 days per week, at the end of your exercise session, after your warm-up, or both.Risk of injury is lower when you stretch while your muscles are warm.
31IntensityYou should stretch to the end of the joint’s ROM or just until you feel discomfort or tightness, but not to the point of pain.It is recommended that you perform 2 to 4 repetitions for each stretch.
33TypeStatic stretchesHold the stretch still and not bounce as you stretch all the major muscle groups.What is a dynamic or ballistic stretch? Stretches with movement, active warm-ups (lunges, high knees, etc.)
34Types of Stretching Passive stretching Active stretching When a partner or stretching machine, or wall provides the force for the stretchActive stretchingWhen you facilitate the force for the stretchThree (3) types of active stretchingStaticBallisticDynamic
35Types of Stretching Static stretching Ballistic stretching Slow and controlled, usually held for 30 secondsBallistic stretchingWhen you bounce through a movement, risk of injury is high (not recommended)Dynamic stretchingYou slowly move parts of the body and increase the range of speedDynamic stretching is particularly effective when you’re getting ready for intense activity, such as sports.
36Body Composition Definition The proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the bodyHealthy body composition consists of a ratio of high fat-free mass to an acceptably low fat mass.A healthy body composition is influenced by gender, height, and weight.
37Body CompositionHigh fat levels lead to an increased risk for hypertension, type 2 diabetes, stroke, heart disease, and high cholesterol.Following a sensible diet and participating in a safe and effective exercise program is the best and safest way to improve body composition.
38Special Considerations Environment and ExerciseWhere to exerciseWhat to wearFitness Basics 101
39Environment and Exercise Exercising in hot weather can be dangerous…Impaired regulation of internal core temperatureRising body temperatures can cause heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heatstroke, and even deathLoss of body fluidsLoss of electrolytesElectrolytes help regulate water distribution in the bodyElectrolytes help regulate water distribution in the body.
40Environment and Exercise SweatingThe cooling effect from sweating comes from the evaporation of the sweat, not from the sweat itselfHumidityAmount of water vapor in the airHigh humidity levels means the sweat can’t evaporate, so the cooling effect of sweating is reduced
41Environment and Exercise Ways to stay cool in the heatKeeping the skin wetHyperhydrationTaking in extra fluids shortly before exercisingDrinking fluids before, during, and after activity in hot environments
42Environment and Exercise Exercising in extremely cold temperatures can be dangerous as wellHypothermiaWhen your body temperature gets below 95 degrees FahrenheitSignsShivering, feelings of euphoria, frostbite
43Heat-Related Disorders Heat DisorderSymptomsTreatmentHeat crampsMuscle crampsRest in cool spot, drink fluids, and avoid salty foodsHeat exhaustionSweating, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, high temperature, pale skinRest in cool spot, cool body with water, drink cold fluids, and get medical attention if needed.HeatstrokeDry or sweaty hot, flushed skin; headache; vomiting; altered mental state, seizureCool body with ice or cold water, sip cool drinks, and get medical help.
44Where to exercise Recreation centers Advantages Disadvantages Variety of equipment for cardiorespiratory fitnessFree weights, machines for strength trainingFitness classesMeet new peopleDisadvantagesCostDistance/availability
45Where to exercise Home/bedroom Advantages Disadvantages Cheap ConvenientDisadvantagesBoring?Lack of varietyWhat are some other advantages? Disadvantages?
46Exercise Ideas On A Budget FreeCardioStepping, jogging, marching in placeJumping jacks, mountain climbers, running the stairsStrengthBody squats, wall sits, push ups, curl upsFlexibilityStretch while sitting or standingUse furniture for passive stretching
47Exercise Ideas On A Budget Low CostCardioUse a jump ropeStrengthResistance bandsFlexibilityYoga DVD
48Exercise Ideas On A Budget Medium costCardioWorkout DVD’sStrengthDumbbells and or a stability ballFlexibilityYoga mat or padded exercise mat
49What to wear Comfort and fit come before fashion! Shoes Running?, tennis?, soccer?, variety?Workout clothesComfortable, allow you to move easily, allow you to maintain a comfortable body temperature
50What to wear If you are training outside in bad weather… Dress in layers (three)Bottom layer should be the thinnest to wick moisture away (lightweight, microfiber) cotton not recommendedSecond layer is for insulation to retain heat and allow excess heat to escape (fleece)Third layer (outermost) should be water/windproof yet breathable to protect you from the elements, mainly rain and windWinter accessories include gloves, scarf, earmuffs, hat, or thick socks
51Safety Equipment If exercising alone or at night take precautions If you are wearing headphones make sure you can still hear what’s going on around youUse sidewalks if available, if not run/walk against traffic so you can see approaching vehiclesTry to avoid heavily trafficked areas and construction
52Safety Equipment Safety gear Reflectors or lights worn on shoes or clothingPhone holdersHelmet or protective padding (cycling)Water bottleSunscreenSunglasses or goggles (swimming)
53Fitness Basics 101 Five components of health-related fitness are: Cardiorespiratory fitnessMuscular strengthMuscular enduranceFlexibilityBody compositionGood cardiorespiratory fitness improves heart and lung function. Long term benefits include reduced risk of heart disease, prevention of hypertension, improved overall health, and easier everyday functioning. Try to accumulate 30-minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on most, if not all, days of the week.
54Fitness Basics 101Muscular strength is the capacity to exert force against a resistance. Muscular endurance refers to the capacity of a muscle to exert a force repeatedly against a resistance.Two types of stretching are active and passive. They both help improve flexibility, which is important in maintaining activities of daily living as you age. Stretching the major muscle groups 2 to 3 days a week will keep your joints and muscles in good working condition.
55Recommendation for Health Improvements CardiorespiratoryMuscular strength and enduranceFlexibilityFrequency3-5 days/week2-3 days/weekIntensityModerate: 60%-80% MHRModerate: 2-4 sets, 8-12 reps2-4 reps each setTime30-60 min6 sec per repHold secTypeAerobic or anaerobicExercises for each major muscle groupStatic
56Works CitedHealth and Wellness For Life. Human Kinetics (2010).