Presentation on theme: "Fitness Basics Health Related Fitness Components Cardiorespiratory fitness Muscular strength Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition."— Presentation transcript:
Fitness Basics Health Related Fitness Components Cardiorespiratory fitness Muscular strength Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition FITT Principle Warm Up Cool Down Basic Principles of Fitness
Objectives Identify the five components of health- related fitness and describe the importance of each. Describe the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness and how you can improve and maintain it throughout your life. Describe the differences between muscular endurance and muscular strength. Identify basic types of stretches and their importance to overall health. Use a variety of resources to stay physically active throughout school. Understand how to stay physically active throughout your adult life.
Standards PEHS.1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities. PEHS.2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities. PEHS.3: Participates regularly in physical activity.
Physical Activity, Exercise, and Physical Fitness Physical activity Moving your body Exercise Moving your body for a purpose Physical fitness A way of measuring how well the body can perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without becoming overly tired
Skill-related fitness Involves agility, balance, coordination, speed, power, and reaction time Health-related fitness The ability of the body to carry out everyday activities without excessive fatigue and with enough energy left for emergencies Physical Activity, Exercise, and Physical Fitness
FITT Principle F requency How often you do physical activity in a week I ntensity How hard you’re working while performing the activity T ime How long you’re doing the activity T ype What type of activity you’re doing
Warm-Up and Cool-Down The warm-up prepares the body to gradually go from a resting state to a state of exertion or exercise. The cool-down gradually takes the body from a state of exertion or exercise back to a resting or near resting state.
Basic Principles of Fitness Overload Muscles adapt quickly to new requirements Progression To see consistent improvements you need to progressively increase exercise Specificity Exercise needs to target the training effect you want Reversibility The fitness improvements you make through physical activity aren’t permanent
Cardiorespiratory Fitness Definition ( aerobic endurance, aerobic fitness ) Refers to the ability of the heart and lungs to efficiently deliver oxygen and nutrients to the muscles and cells by way of the bloodstream Cardio Heart Respiratory Lungs
Guidelines Goal To expend (burn) 150 to 400 calories in physical activity per day Minimum 1000 calories per week
Frequency American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends 3 to 5 days a week
Intensity For most people intensities within the range of 60 to 80 percent of their heart rate reserve (HRR) are good enough to bring improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (ACSM 2006)
Time You need to exercise for at least 30-minutes a day at moderate intensity on 3 to 5 days of the week to get the most benefit from cardiorespiratory training You can do shorter bouts--10 minutes or so--several times a day to accumulate the total recommended minutes
Type Aerobic In the presence of oxygen Any type of rhythmic activity that can be sustained for at least 20 minutes and uses large muscle groups is aerobic Brisk walking, cycling, swimming Anaerobic Without oxygen High intensity activity that can’t be sustained for long Sprinting, weight training
Determining Intensity Heart rate The higher the intensity, the higher the heart rate ACSM recommends exercising at a target heart rate (THR) of 60 to 80 percent of HRR to get cardiorespiratory fitness benefits
How do I determine my maximum heart rate and range? 220 minus your age To find your exercise range you need to multiply the percentage you want to exercise at by your maximum heart rate
Muscular Strength and Endurance Muscular strength The capacity of the muscle to exert force against resistance Muscular endurance The capacity of the muscle to exert force repeatedly against resistance Muscle burns calories even at rest, so the more muscle you have, the more calories you burn throughout the day. Having fit muscles improves physical appearance and self-esteem.
Muscular Strength and Endurance Resistance Training Exercise that uses free weights, bands, machines, and body weight to put resistance on the muscle through a full range of motion. Muscular contractions (3 types) Isometric Concentric Eccentric
Muscular Strength and Endurance Isometric contraction Muscle applying force without moving Flexing your stomach muscles Concentric contraction When a force is produced while the muscle shortens Flexing biceps Eccentric contraction When a force is produced while the muscle lengthens Lowering your hand from your shoulder to your side
Muscular Strength and Endurance Terms: Weight Amount of resistance used during the exercise Repetition (rep) One complete movement through a full range of motion Range of motion (ROM) Degree of movement that occurs at a joint Set A series of repetitions Rest time Amount of time between sets
General Guidelines Strength training programs should focus on major muscle groups such as back, shoulders, chest, arms, hips, legs, abdominal muscles You should not hold your breath while lifting Inhale on the easier part of the contraction, exhale on the harder part
Frequency You should exercise each muscle group 2 or 3 nonconsecutive days per week Allow at least 48 hours of rest before returning to a muscle group so you don’t injure the muscles from overuse Muscles become stronger during the rest and recuperation phase
Intensity You need to overload the muscle with more than it’s used to in order to coax a training effect from the body Ways to change the intensity Varying the amount of weight used Number of repetitions Speed of movement Rest periods
Intensity 1-repetition maximum (1RM) Maximum amount of weight you can lift for no more than 1 full rep Your training goal determines intensity Strength & Power 6 or fewer 70-90% of 1RM Muscle mass % of 1RM Muscular endurance More than 12 less than 67% of 1RM
Time Each repetition should take about 6 seconds total--3 for concentric, 3 for eccentric Allow enough rest time between exercises to be able to perform the next exercise with proper form
Type Perform a minimum of 8-10 exercises to train all the major muscle groups of the body Remember to switch muscle groups so you’re not training the same muscles in the same 48 hours
Flexibility Definition The ability to move a joint through its full ROM Makes everyday movements easier
Guidelines The best way to improve flexibility is to do regular stretching exercises. Focus on major muscle groups when stretching (back, shoulders, chest, arms, hips, legs, abdomen)
Frequency You should stretch a minimum of 2 or 3 days per week, at the end of your exercise session, after your warm-up, or both. Risk of injury is lower when you stretch while your muscles are warm.
Intensity You should stretch to the end of the joint’s ROM or just until you feel discomfort or tightness, but not to the point of pain. It is recommended that you perform 2 to 4 repetitions for each stretch.
Time Hold each stretch 15 to 30 seconds.
Type Static stretches Hold the stretch still and not bounce as you stretch all the major muscle groups.
Types of Stretching Passive stretching When a partner or stretching machine, or wall provides the force for the stretch Active stretching When you facilitate the force for the stretch Three (3) types of active stretching Static Ballistic Dynamic
Types of Stretching Static stretching Slow and controlled, usually held for 30 seconds Ballistic stretching When you bounce through a movement, risk of injury is high (not recommended) Dynamic stretching You slowly move parts of the body and increase the range of speed
Body Composition Definition The proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body Healthy body composition consists of a ratio of high fat-free mass to an acceptably low fat mass. A healthy body composition is influenced by gender, height, and weight.
Body Composition High fat levels lead to an increased risk for hypertension, type 2 diabetes, stroke, heart disease, and high cholesterol. Following a sensible diet and participating in a safe and effective exercise program is the best and safest way to improve body composition.
Special Considerations Environment and Exercise Where to exercise What to wear Fitness Basics 101
Environment and Exercise Exercising in hot weather can be dangerous… Impaired regulation of internal core temperature Rising body temperatures can cause heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heatstroke, and even death Loss of body fluids Loss of electrolytes Electrolytes help regulate water distribution in the body
Environment and Exercise Sweating The cooling effect from sweating comes from the evaporation of the sweat, not from the sweat itself Humidity Amount of water vapor in the air High humidity levels means the sweat can’t evaporate, so the cooling effect of sweating is reduced
Environment and Exercise Ways to stay cool in the heat Keeping the skin wet Hyperhydration Taking in extra fluids shortly before exercising Drinking fluids before, during, and after activity in hot environments
Environment and Exercise Exercising in extremely cold temperatures can be dangerous as well Hypothermia When your body temperature gets below 95 degrees Fahrenheit Signs Shivering, feelings of euphoria, frostbite
Heat-Related Disorders Heat DisorderSymptomsTreatment Heat cramps Muscle crampsRest in cool spot, drink fluids, and avoid salty foods Heat exhaustion Sweating, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, high temperature, pale skin Rest in cool spot, cool body with water, drink cold fluids, and get medical attention if needed. Heatstroke Dry or sweaty hot, flushed skin; headache; vomiting; altered mental state, seizure Cool body with ice or cold water, sip cool drinks, and get medical help.
Where to exercise Recreation centers Advantages Variety of equipment for cardiorespiratory fitness Free weights, machines for strength training Fitness classes Meet new people Disadvantages Cost Distance/availability
Where to exercise Home/bedroom Advantages Cheap Convenient Disadvantages Boring? Lack of variety
Exercise Ideas On A Budget Free Cardio Stepping, jogging, marching in place Jumping jacks, mountain climbers, running the stairs Strength Body squats, wall sits, push ups, curl ups Flexibility Stretch while sitting or standing Use furniture for passive stretching
Exercise Ideas On A Budget Low Cost Cardio Use a jump rope Strength Resistance bands Flexibility Yoga DVD
Exercise Ideas On A Budget Medium cost Cardio Workout DVD’s Strength Dumbbells and or a stability ball Flexibility Yoga mat or padded exercise mat
What to wear Comfort and fit come before fashion! Shoes Running?, tennis?, soccer?, variety? Workout clothes Comfortable, allow you to move easily, allow you to maintain a comfortable body temperature
What to wear If you are training outside in bad weather… Dress in layers (three) Bottom layer should be the thinnest to wick moisture away (lightweight, microfiber) cotton not recommended Second layer is for insulation to retain heat and allow excess heat to escape (fleece) Third layer (outermost) should be water/windproof yet breathable to protect you from the elements, mainly rain and wind Winter accessories include gloves, scarf, earmuffs, hat, or thick socks
Safety Equipment If exercising alone or at night take precautions If you are wearing headphones make sure you can still hear what’s going on around you Use sidewalks if available, if not run/walk against traffic so you can see approaching vehicles Try to avoid heavily trafficked areas and construction
Safety Equipment Safety gear Reflectors or lights worn on shoes or clothing Phone holders Helmet or protective padding (cycling) Water bottle Sunscreen Sunglasses or goggles (swimming)
Fitness Basics 101 Five components of health-related fitness are: Cardiorespiratory fitness Muscular strength Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition Good cardiorespiratory fitness improves heart and lung function. Long term benefits include reduced risk of heart disease, prevention of hypertension, improved overall health, and easier everyday functioning. Try to accumulate 30-minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on most, if not all, days of the week.
Fitness Basics 101 Muscular strength is the capacity to exert force against a resistance. Muscular endurance refers to the capacity of a muscle to exert a force repeatedly against a resistance. Two types of stretching are active and passive. They both help improve flexibility, which is important in maintaining activities of daily living as you age. Stretching the major muscle groups 2 to 3 days a week will keep your joints and muscles in good working condition.
Recommendation for Health Improvements Cardiorespirato ry Muscular strength and endurance Flexibility Frequency 3-5 days/week2-3 days/week Intensity Moderate: 60%- 80% MHR Moderate: 2-4 sets, 8-12 reps 2-4 reps each set Time min6 sec per repHold sec Type Aerobic or anaerobic Exercises for each major muscle group Static
Works Cited Health and Wellness For Life. Human Kinetics (2010).