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Fitness Basics Health Related Fitness Components FITT Principle

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Presentation on theme: "Fitness Basics Health Related Fitness Components FITT Principle"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fitness Basics Health Related Fitness Components FITT Principle
Cardiorespiratory fitness Muscular strength Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition FITT Principle Warm Up Cool Down Basic Principles of Fitness

2 Objectives Identify the five components of health-related fitness and describe the importance of each. Describe the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness and how you can improve and maintain it throughout your life. Describe the differences between muscular endurance and muscular strength. Identify basic types of stretches and their importance to overall health. Use a variety of resources to stay physically active throughout school. Understand how to stay physically active throughout your adult life.

3 Standards PEHS.1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities. PEHS.2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities. PEHS.3: Participates regularly in physical activity.

4 Physical Activity, Exercise, and Physical Fitness
Moving your body Exercise Moving your body for a purpose Physical fitness A way of measuring how well the body can perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without becoming overly tired

5 Physical Activity, Exercise, and Physical Fitness
Skill-related fitness Involves agility, balance, coordination, speed, power, and reaction time Health-related fitness The ability of the body to carry out everyday activities without excessive fatigue and with enough energy left for emergencies

6 Health-Related Fitness Components
Cardiorespiratory fitness Muscular strength Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition

7 FITT Principle Frequency Intensity Time Type
How often you do physical activity in a week Intensity How hard you’re working while performing the activity Time How long you’re doing the activity Type What type of activity you’re doing

8 Warm-Up and Cool-Down The warm-up prepares the body to gradually go from a resting state to a state of exertion or exercise. The cool-down gradually takes the body from a state of exertion or exercise back to a resting or near resting state.

9 Basic Principles of Fitness
Overload Muscles adapt quickly to new requirements Progression To see consistent improvements you need to progressively increase exercise Specificity Exercise needs to target the training effect you want Reversibility The fitness improvements you make through physical activity aren’t permanent

10 Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Definition (aerobic endurance, aerobic fitness) Refers to the ability of the heart and lungs to efficiently deliver oxygen and nutrients to the muscles and cells by way of the bloodstream Cardio Heart Respiratory Lungs

11 Guidelines Goal To expend (burn) 150 to 400 calories in physical activity per day Minimum 1000 calories per week

12 Frequency American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends 3 to 5 days a week

13 Intensity For most people intensities within the range of 60 to 80 percent of their heart rate reserve (HRR) are good enough to bring improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (ACSM 2006)

14 Time You need to exercise for at least 30-minutes a day at moderate intensity on 3 to 5 days of the week to get the most benefit from cardiorespiratory training You can do shorter bouts--10 minutes or so--several times a day to accumulate the total recommended minutes

15 Type Aerobic Anaerobic In the presence of oxygen
Any type of rhythmic activity that can be sustained for at least 20 minutes and uses large muscle groups is aerobic Brisk walking, cycling, swimming Anaerobic Without oxygen High intensity activity that can’t be sustained for long Sprinting, weight training

16 Determining Intensity
Heart rate The higher the intensity, the higher the heart rate ACSM recommends exercising at a target heart rate (THR) of 60 to 80 percent of HRR to get cardiorespiratory fitness benefits

17 How do I determine my maximum heart rate and range?
220 minus your age To find your exercise range you need to multiply the percentage you want to exercise at by your maximum heart rate

18 Muscular Strength and Endurance
The capacity of the muscle to exert force against resistance Muscular endurance The capacity of the muscle to exert force repeatedly against resistance Muscle burns calories even at rest, so the more muscle you have, the more calories you burn throughout the day. Having fit muscles improves physical appearance and self-esteem. Together they allow you to perform activities of daily living with less stress, protect you from injuries, and help you maintain functional independence throughout your life. When you increase muscle mass, you increase your metabolic rate.

19 Muscular Strength and Endurance
Resistance Training Exercise that uses free weights, bands, machines, and body weight to put resistance on the muscle through a full range of motion. Muscular contractions (3 types) Isometric Concentric Eccentric In the same way that cardiorespiratory training strengthens the heart, resistance training strengthens muscles and improves muscular endurance.

20 Muscular Strength and Endurance
Isometric contraction Muscle applying force without moving Flexing your stomach muscles Concentric contraction When a force is produced while the muscle shortens Flexing biceps Eccentric contraction When a force is produced while the muscle lengthens Lowering your hand from your shoulder to your side Isometric examples: pushing your hands together, pushing against an immovable object (wall, etc.)

21 Muscular Strength and Endurance
Terms: Weight Amount of resistance used during the exercise Repetition (rep) One complete movement through a full range of motion Range of motion (ROM) Degree of movement that occurs at a joint Set A series of repetitions Rest time Amount of time between sets

22 General Guidelines Strength training programs should focus on major muscle groups such as back, shoulders, chest, arms, hips, legs, abdominal muscles You should not hold your breath while lifting Inhale on the easier part of the contraction, exhale on the harder part

23 Frequency You should exercise each muscle group 2 or 3 nonconsecutive days per week Allow at least 48 hours of rest before returning to a muscle group so you don’t injure the muscles from overuse Muscles become stronger during the rest and recuperation phase

24 Intensity You need to overload the muscle with more than it’s used to in order to coax a training effect from the body Ways to change the intensity Varying the amount of weight used Number of repetitions Speed of movement Rest periods According to the overload principle, muscle adapts quickly and has to be oontinually overloaded for progress to continue

25 Intensity 1-repetition maximum (1RM)
Maximum amount of weight you can lift for no more than 1 full rep Your training goal determines intensity Strength & Power 6 or fewer 70-90% of 1RM Muscle mass % of 1RM Muscular endurance More than 12 less than 67% of 1RM

26 Time Each repetition should take about 6 seconds total--3 for concentric, 3 for eccentric Allow enough rest time between exercises to be able to perform the next exercise with proper form

27 Type Perform a minimum of 8-10 exercises to train all the major muscle groups of the body Remember to switch muscle groups so you’re not training the same muscles in the same 48 hours

28 Flexibility Definition Makes everyday movements easier
The ability to move a joint through its full ROM Makes everyday movements easier Stiffness can cause older people to assume unnatural body positions, which can lead to back, neck, or shoulder pain. Important to stretch when lifting. As a muscle grows stronger, the tiny tears that were created during weight training grow back stronger which makes the muscle tighter and starts to decrease the ROM through the joint. Can sheer muscle mass decrease one’s ROM?

29 Guidelines The best way to improve flexibility is to do regular stretching exercises. Focus on major muscle groups when stretching (back, shoulders, chest, arms, hips, legs, abdomen)

30 Frequency You should stretch a minimum of 2 or 3 days per week, at the end of your exercise session, after your warm-up, or both. Risk of injury is lower when you stretch while your muscles are warm.

31 Intensity You should stretch to the end of the joint’s ROM or just until you feel discomfort or tightness, but not to the point of pain. It is recommended that you perform 2 to 4 repetitions for each stretch.

32 Time Hold each stretch 15 to 30 seconds.

33 Type Static stretches Hold the stretch still and not bounce as you stretch all the major muscle groups. What is a dynamic or ballistic stretch? Stretches with movement, active warm-ups (lunges, high knees, etc.)

34 Types of Stretching Passive stretching Active stretching
When a partner or stretching machine, or wall provides the force for the stretch Active stretching When you facilitate the force for the stretch Three (3) types of active stretching Static Ballistic Dynamic

35 Types of Stretching Static stretching Ballistic stretching
Slow and controlled, usually held for 30 seconds Ballistic stretching When you bounce through a movement, risk of injury is high (not recommended) Dynamic stretching You slowly move parts of the body and increase the range of speed Dynamic stretching is particularly effective when you’re getting ready for intense activity, such as sports.

36 Body Composition Definition
The proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body Healthy body composition consists of a ratio of high fat-free mass to an acceptably low fat mass. A healthy body composition is influenced by gender, height, and weight.

37 Body Composition High fat levels lead to an increased risk for hypertension, type 2 diabetes, stroke, heart disease, and high cholesterol. Following a sensible diet and participating in a safe and effective exercise program is the best and safest way to improve body composition.

38 Special Considerations
Environment and Exercise Where to exercise What to wear Fitness Basics 101

39 Environment and Exercise
Exercising in hot weather can be dangerous… Impaired regulation of internal core temperature Rising body temperatures can cause heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heatstroke, and even death Loss of body fluids Loss of electrolytes Electrolytes help regulate water distribution in the body Electrolytes help regulate water distribution in the body.

40 Environment and Exercise
Sweating The cooling effect from sweating comes from the evaporation of the sweat, not from the sweat itself Humidity Amount of water vapor in the air High humidity levels means the sweat can’t evaporate, so the cooling effect of sweating is reduced

41 Environment and Exercise
Ways to stay cool in the heat Keeping the skin wet Hyperhydration Taking in extra fluids shortly before exercising Drinking fluids before, during, and after activity in hot environments

42 Environment and Exercise
Exercising in extremely cold temperatures can be dangerous as well Hypothermia When your body temperature gets below 95 degrees Fahrenheit Signs Shivering, feelings of euphoria, frostbite

43 Heat-Related Disorders
Heat Disorder Symptoms Treatment Heat cramps Muscle cramps Rest in cool spot, drink fluids, and avoid salty foods Heat exhaustion Sweating, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, high temperature, pale skin Rest in cool spot, cool body with water, drink cold fluids, and get medical attention if needed. Heatstroke Dry or sweaty hot, flushed skin; headache; vomiting; altered mental state, seizure Cool body with ice or cold water, sip cool drinks, and get medical help.

44 Where to exercise Recreation centers Advantages Disadvantages
Variety of equipment for cardiorespiratory fitness Free weights, machines for strength training Fitness classes Meet new people Disadvantages Cost Distance/availability

45 Where to exercise Home/bedroom Advantages Disadvantages Cheap
Convenient Disadvantages Boring? Lack of variety What are some other advantages? Disadvantages?

46 Exercise Ideas On A Budget
Free Cardio Stepping, jogging, marching in place Jumping jacks, mountain climbers, running the stairs Strength Body squats, wall sits, push ups, curl ups Flexibility Stretch while sitting or standing Use furniture for passive stretching

47 Exercise Ideas On A Budget
Low Cost Cardio Use a jump rope Strength Resistance bands Flexibility Yoga DVD

48 Exercise Ideas On A Budget
Medium cost Cardio Workout DVD’s Strength Dumbbells and or a stability ball Flexibility Yoga mat or padded exercise mat

49 What to wear Comfort and fit come before fashion! Shoes
Running?, tennis?, soccer?, variety? Workout clothes Comfortable, allow you to move easily, allow you to maintain a comfortable body temperature

50 What to wear If you are training outside in bad weather…
Dress in layers (three) Bottom layer should be the thinnest to wick moisture away (lightweight, microfiber) cotton not recommended Second layer is for insulation to retain heat and allow excess heat to escape (fleece) Third layer (outermost) should be water/windproof yet breathable to protect you from the elements, mainly rain and wind Winter accessories include gloves, scarf, earmuffs, hat, or thick socks

51 Safety Equipment If exercising alone or at night take precautions
If you are wearing headphones make sure you can still hear what’s going on around you Use sidewalks if available, if not run/walk against traffic so you can see approaching vehicles Try to avoid heavily trafficked areas and construction

52 Safety Equipment Safety gear
Reflectors or lights worn on shoes or clothing Phone holders Helmet or protective padding (cycling) Water bottle Sunscreen Sunglasses or goggles (swimming)

53 Fitness Basics 101 Five components of health-related fitness are:
Cardiorespiratory fitness Muscular strength Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition Good cardiorespiratory fitness improves heart and lung function. Long term benefits include reduced risk of heart disease, prevention of hypertension, improved overall health, and easier everyday functioning. Try to accumulate 30-minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on most, if not all, days of the week.

54 Fitness Basics 101 Muscular strength is the capacity to exert force against a resistance. Muscular endurance refers to the capacity of a muscle to exert a force repeatedly against a resistance. Two types of stretching are active and passive. They both help improve flexibility, which is important in maintaining activities of daily living as you age. Stretching the major muscle groups 2 to 3 days a week will keep your joints and muscles in good working condition.

55 Recommendation for Health Improvements
Cardiorespiratory Muscular strength and endurance Flexibility Frequency 3-5 days/week 2-3 days/week Intensity Moderate: 60%-80% MHR Moderate: 2-4 sets, 8-12 reps 2-4 reps each set Time 30-60 min 6 sec per rep Hold sec Type Aerobic or anaerobic Exercises for each major muscle group Static

56 Works Cited Health and Wellness For Life. Human Kinetics (2010).

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