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Heavy ions at the FCC Andrea Dainese (INFN Padova, Italy) FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 1 on behalf of the “FCC-ions” discussion group.

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Presentation on theme: "Heavy ions at the FCC Andrea Dainese (INFN Padova, Italy) FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 1 on behalf of the “FCC-ions” discussion group."— Presentation transcript:

1 Heavy ions at the FCC Andrea Dainese (INFN Padova, Italy) FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 1 on behalf of the “FCC-ions” discussion group contact persons: N. Armesto, D. d’Enterria, S. Masciocchi, C. Roland, C. Salgado, M. van Leeuwen, U. Wiedemann

2 Outline  Introduction, organization  Future timeline with heavy ions at the LHC  Ions at the FCC  High-density QCD in the initial state: small-x and saturation  High-density QCD in the final state: deconfinement and QGP  High-multiplicity events in small systems (pp, pA)   collisions in a AA collider and connections to cosmic rays  Summary FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 2

3 Introduction, organization  A discussion group on “Ions at the FCC” started: coordinated by A.D., S. Masciocchi, U. Wiedemann  Sub-group of “FHC Physics, Experiments, Detectors”  Two meetings up now, Dec 16-17 and Jan 29  https://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?ovw=True&confId=288576 https://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?ovw=True&confId=288576  https://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=290413 https://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=290413  Particip. from CERN acc. team, theory, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS  Goal: explore opportunities with HI at the FCC  Saturation (contacts: N. Armesto, M. van Leeuwen)  Soft physics (contact: U. Wiedemann)  Hard probes (contacts: A. Dainese, C. Roland, C. Salgado)   / UPC (contact: D. d’Enterria)  Work in progress! Just few initial ideas presented here FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 3

4 Timeline of future HI running at the LHC  Run 2 (LS1  LS2): Pb-Pb ~1/nb or more, at √s NN ~ 5.1 TeV  LS2: major ALICE and LHCb upgrades, important upgrades for ATLAS and CMS, LHC collimator upgrades  Run 3 + Run 4: Pb-Pb >10/nb, at √s NN ~ 5.5 TeV  pp reference and p-Pb in both Runs 2 and 3-4 FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 4 Experiments request/goal:

5 Ions at FCC: energies and luminosities  Centre-of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon collision:  First (conservative) estimates of luminosity (in comparison with LHC): x5 larger L int per month of running  Possibility to increase L int using nuclei with slightly smaller Z?  Some of the limiting factors (e.m. process) go with “large” powers of Z  Could (optimistically) aim at a programme of 50-100/nb AA, i.e. LHC x5-10 FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 5 for see talk by M. Schaumann

6 Outline  Introduction, organization  Future timeline with heavy ions at the LHC  Ions at the FCC  High-density QCD in the initial state: small-x and saturation  High-density QCD in the final state: deconfinement and QGP  High-multiplicity events in small systems (pp, pA)   collisions in a AA collider and connections to cosmic rays  Summary FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 6

7 High-density QCD in the initial state: Saturation at low x FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 7  Explore new unknown regime of QCD: when gluons are numerous enough (low-x) & extended enough (low-Q 2 ) to overlap  Saturation, Non-linear PDF evolution Enhanced in nuclei: more gluons per unit transverse area Saturation affects process with Q 2 { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/14/4353457/slides/slide_7.jpg", "name": "High-density QCD in the initial state: Saturation at low x FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 7  Explore new unknown regime of QCD: when gluons are numerous enough (low-x) & extended enough (low-Q 2 ) to overlap  Saturation, Non-linear PDF evolution Enhanced in nuclei: more gluons per unit transverse area Saturation affects process with Q 2

8 8 Kinematic coverage Q 2 vs. x: pre- LHC FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 8 Q 2 sat,p (x) A 1/3

9 Nuclear modification of PDFs  Lack of data at x<10 -3  large spread for nuclear modification of gluons at small scales and x  DGLAP analysis at NLO shows large uncertainties FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 9 ≈ measured expected if no nuclear effects

10 Testing non-linear evolution 10  Cover significant range in (x, Q 2 )  next slides  Multiple observables with sensitivity to quarks and gluons  At FCC expect significant charm contribution in sea (see J. Rojo)  Kinematics is cleanest for partonic observables: photons, Drell-Yan, W/Z bosons  + no interactions in the final state  Hadronic observables potentially very interesting (e.g. forward pion+jets)  Validation and sensitivity will come from LHC data (including possible impact of final-state effects in pA) FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 10 Plan: quantify impact of observables on nuclear PDF fits; expect constructive overlaps with ongoing LHC studies

11 Example: Drell-Yan in p-Pb at LHC 11 Armesto et al., 1309.5371 FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 11 Pseudo-data (CMS acceptance) sea gluon Plan: perform similar studies to assess sensitivity of FCC

12 12 Kinematic coverage Q 2 vs. x: pA LHC FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 12

13 13 Kinematic coverage Q 2 vs. x: pA FCC FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 13

14 14 Low Q 2 : initial conditions Non-Linear evolution for Q 2 < Q 2 sat Goals: determine Q 2 sat test non-linear evolution Goals: determine Q 2 sat test non-linear evolution Kinematic coverage Q 2 vs. x: pA FCC FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 14

15 15 Goals: determine Q 2 sat test non-linear evolution Goals: determine Q 2 sat test non-linear evolution Kinematic coverage Q 2 vs. x: pA FCC FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 15 Perturbative probes (J/ , …) Z, W y@LHCy@FCC Charm>4>2

16 16 Kinematic coverage Q 2 vs. x: eA FCC FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 16  see also B. Cole in ep/eA session Perturbative probes (J/ , …) pA at FCC: unique access down to x~10 -7 with perturbative probes eA at FCC: down to 10 -6 with perturbative probes, but fully constrained parton kinematics

17 Outline  Introduction, organization  Future timeline with heavy ions at the LHC  Ions at the FCC  High-density QCD in the initial state: small-x and saturation  High-density QCD in the final state: deconfinement and QGP  High-multiplicity events in small systems (pp, pA)   collisions in a AA collider and connections to cosmic rays  Summary FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 17

18 The QGP at the FCC: first ideas  Properties of the QGP:  QGP volume substantially increases (~ factor 2)  Formation (thermalization) time expected to be subst. reduced  Larger initial temperature and energy density (~ 1/t a )  Probe earlier phase of medium evolution, fundamental question “how is thermalization reached?”  Change in number of degrees of freedom? g + u + d + s + charm  Probes of the QGP:  Large energy and luminosity give access to new probes, like top, which have potential sensitivity to early times in the medium  Secondary (in-medium) charm production expected to be sizeable and could give additional handle on the initial temperature  MENTION HERE ALSO THE Y(1S) MELTING?? FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 18 TO BE IMPROVED OR REMOVED

19 QGP studies at the FCC: global properties  Extrapolation to 39 TeV: increase wrt LHC 5.5 TeV FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 19 dN ch /d  x 1.8 Volume x1.8 dE T /d  x2.2

20 QGP studies at the FCC: energy density  Energy density with Bjorken formula FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 20  x2.2 larger for the same time  E.g. 35 GeV/fm 3 at 1 fm/c  Initial time (QGP formation time) ?  Usually ~0.1 fm/c for LHC  Could be smaller at FCC  Significantly larger initial energy density? FCC? LHC

21 QGP studies at the FCC: temperature  Temperature from S-B equation FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 21  20% larger for the same time  E.g. 360 MeV at 1 fm/c  Initial time (QGP formation time) ?  Usually ~0.1 fm/c for LHC  Could be smaller at FCC  Significantly larger initial temperature? Could reach close to 1 GeV? FCC? LHC

22 Charmed QGP? Secondary/thermal charm?  Expect abundant production of c-cbar pairs in the medium  Calculations for LHC 5.5TeV: + 15-45% wrt hard scattering  To be repeated for 39 TeV, could become comparable with initial production  Should show up as “thermalized” component at 1-2 GeV  Need very precise reference in pp and pA collisions  Secondary charm yield very sensitive to the initial temperature and to the temperature evolution  E.g. factor 2 difference between T 0 = 700 and 750 MeV  Unique opportunity at FCC FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 22 dN cc /dy J. Uphoff et al. PRC82 (2010) B.-W. Zhang et al. PRC77 (2008)

23 Charmed QGP? Equation of state and charm deconfinement  If charm is produced abundantly during the equilibration of the medium, this should show up in the equation of state FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 23 g+u+d+s g+u+d+s+c S. Borsanyi et al., arXiv:1204.0995  Could verify the lattice QCD prediction that charm deconfinement occurs at ~1.5 T C ~250 MeV, e.g. by fitting charm yields with resonance gas model light q charm Preliminary!

24 Y(1S) melting at the FCC FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 24 Digal,Petrecki,Satz PRD64(2001) confirmed by recent calculations, e.g. Miao, Mócsy, Petreczky, NPA (2011) ~350 MeV  Sequential quarkonium melting (according to binding energy), one of the most direct probes of deconfinement  Indication of sequential melting at LHC, but…  Y(1S) R AA ~0.5: consistent with suppression of higher states only  Y(1S) expected to melt at ~350 MeV  May not melt at LHC  Full quarkonium melting at FCC

25 FCC: a new set of Hard Probes  The current LHC heavy ion programme shows that it is possible to reconstruct HEP-like observables in HI collisions  Jets, b-jets, Z 0, W,  -jet correlations … o HI performance in future detectors should reach the pp performance level of current LHC detectors  Final state distributions of based on these observables will be studied in depth in the HL-LHC  The large cross section and luminosity of the FCC will allow tagging more complex decay topologies to isolate defined initial state parton configurations and their propagation in the medium  Probe the earliest phases of the collision  Defined parton configurations traversing the medium o e.g Z+n-jets, top quarks in FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 25

26 Hard probes cross sections: LHC  FCC  Larger increases for larger masses:  80x for top  20x for Z+1jet (p T >50 GeV)  8x for bottom or Z FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 26 Computed for pp with MCFM (Campbell, Ellis, Williams, http://mcfm.fnal.gov)  (√s)  (√s) /  (5.5 TeV)

27 An interesting physics case: boosted color singlets in the medium FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 27 q-qbar with small opening angle; seen as color-singlet by the medium, no interaction expected Medium induces decoherence, opening angle increases  energy loss of color-octet’s in the medium Armesto, Casalderrey, Iancu, Ma, Mehtar-Tani, Salgado, Tywoniuk 2010-2014 Basic idea: the QCD medium does not affect colored objects smaller than its resolving power   Boosted color singlet states can be used to probe the medium opacity / density at different time scales

28 An interesting physics case: boosted color singlets in the medium FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 28 timetime  Interaction with the medium starts First estimation of the timescales for boosted objects in the medium A tool to probe timescale of medium evolution? time

29 Pb Top quarks in Pb-Pb at HL-LHC and FCC  Decay channels  ll+bb+MET 10%: “observation channel”  l+bb+2jet+MET 44%  bb+4jet 46%  Estimate for observation channel in CMS (CMS PAS-FTR-2013-025)  10 nb -1 5.5 TeV Pb-Pb collisions  ~ 500 events  FCC: with L int =50-100/nb, x400-800 top wrt 10/nb@LHC5.5  With a detector similar to CMS, ~2-4x10 5 in the “observation (cleanest) channel”; could be 4-5x more in the other channels  few 10 3 with p T > 0.5 TeV  few 10 2 with p T > 1 TeV FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 29

30 Outline  Introduction, organization  Future timeline with heavy ions at the LHC  Ions at the FCC  High-density QCD in the initial state: small-x and saturation  High-density QCD in the final state: deconfinement and QGP  High-multiplicity events in small systems (pp, pA)   collisions in a AA collider and connections to cosmic rays  Summary FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 30

31 High-multiplicity events in small systems  One of the most interesting findings of the LHC HI programme: similarity of long-range correlations (ridge) in high-mult pp, pPb as in Pb-Pb collisions  Similar mechanism? Collectivity in small high-density systems? Initial or final state collectivity?  Increased energy of FCC could be a unique opportunity to explore more extreme multiplicities and study QCD mechanisms that lead to thermalization/collectivity FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 31 pp, high mult pPb, high mult CMS, JHEP 1009 (2010) 091 CMS, PLB 724 (2013) 213 ALICE, PLB726 (2013) 164 pPb, high mult

32 Outline  Introduction, organization  Future timeline with heavy ions at the LHC  Ions at the FCC  High-density QCD in the initial state: small-x and saturation  High-density QCD in the final state: deconfinement and QGP  High-multiplicity events in small systems (pp, pA)   collisions in a AA collider and connections to cosmic rays  Summary FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 32

33  -induced collisions at FCC (Pb-Pb) FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 33  Electromagnetic ultra-peripheral collisions (UPC): b min >R A +R B  HE ions generate strong EM fields from coherent emission of Z=82 p's:  Huge photon fluxes:   (  -Pb) ~ Z 2 (~10 4 for Pb) larger than in pp   (  -  ) ~ Z 4 (~5·10 7 for PbPb) larger than in pp  Max. FCC ,  N √s energies: =+ photon-proton,nucleus colls.photon-photon collisions    PbPb: pPb: √s  ~ 1.2 TeV √s  Pb ~ 7 TeV √s  ~ 6 TeV √s  p ~ 10 TeV

34 ~2 orders of magnitude below LHC!  -Pb physics at FCC (Pb-Pb)  Sensitive to very small x gluon density: powerful handle on saturation region with perturbative probes  Exclusive Q-Qbar: x ~ m 2 QQ /s  p,  Pb ~ 10 -7  Also: inclusive dijet, heavy-Q (also t-tbar) FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 34

35 ■ “Low masses”: x4 higher effective lumi than at LHC-5.5 TeV Huge stats for: , double vector meson ( , J/  J/  ),... ■ High masses : x400 more lumi than LHC for Higgs x700 more lumi than LHC for W+W- (anomalous QGC) N Higgs ~ 10 counts/month N W+W- ~ 1000 counts/month N t-tbar ~ few counts/month LHC FCC  physics at FCC (Pb-Pb) FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 35

36 FCC pA and AA probe ankle-energy and provides strong constraints for hadronic Monte Carlos for UHECR (p,Fe+Air) Pre-LHC models tuned here LHC data ×10 3 extrapolation ×10 extrapolation √s GZK ~300 TeV FCC ankle GZK cut-off p,Fe+Air collisions Cosmic-rays MC tuning with FCC (Pb-Pb) FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 36

37 Summary  Bla bla bla … FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 37

38 EXTRA SLIDES FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 38

39  Jets: characterization of energy loss mechanism both as a testing ground for the multi-particle aspects of QCD and as a probe of the medium density  Differential studies of jets, b-jets, di-jets,  /Z-jet at very high p T (focus of ATLAS and CMS)  Flavour-dependent in-medium fragmentation functions (focus of ALICE)  Heavy flavour: characterization of mass dependence of energy loss, HQ in-medium thermalization and hadronization, as a probe of the medium transport properties  Low-p T production and elliptic flow of several HF hadron species (focus of ALICE)  B and b-jets (focus of ATLAS and CMS)  Quarkonium: precision study of quarkonium dissociation pattern and regeneration, as probes of deconfinement and of the medium temperature  Low-p T charmonia and elliptic flow (focus of ALICE)  Multi-differential studies of Υ states (focus of ATLAS and CMS)  Low-mass di-leptons: thermal radiation γ (  e + e - ) to map temperature during system evolution; modification of ρ meson spectral function as a probe of the chiral symmetry restoration  (Very) low-p T and low-mass di-electrons and di-muons (ALICE) FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 39 HI-HL-LHC Programme (not exhaustive!)

40 Saturation scale  Onset of non-linear QCD when gluons are numerous enough (low-x) & extended enough (low-Q 2 ) to overlap:  ~0.3) gluon “area” Q2Q2 ~1/Q number of gluons nuclear overlap Saturation affects process with Q 2 { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/14/4353457/slides/slide_40.jpg", "name": "Saturation scale  Onset of non-linear QCD when gluons are numerous enough (low-x) & extended enough (low-Q 2 ) to overlap:  ~0.3) gluon area Q2Q2 ~1/Q number of gluons nuclear overlap Saturation affects process with Q 2

41 Some possibilities (not discussed in detail) 41 Observable Sensitivity Initial conditionEvolution Charged single inclusive at fixed rapidity, HF: glue yesp T dependence DY, photons: sea and glueyesp T dependence Rapidity/energy evolution of single inclusive yes Back-to-back correlations (charged, photons, jets,…): central-central, forward-forward yesp T dependence Back-to-back correlations: central- forward (charged, photons, jets,…) yes Ridgeyes??? … FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 41 Plan: quantify impact of observables on nuclear PDF fits; expect constructive overlaps with ongoing LHC studies

42 42 ● Nuclear wave function at small x: nuclear structure functions. ● Particle production at the very beginning: which factorisation in pA? ● How does the system behave as ∼ isotropised so fast?: initial conditions for plasma formation to be studied in pA. ● Probing the medium through energetic particles (jet quenching etc.): modification of QCD radiation and hadronisation in the nuclear medium. Relevance for the HI program FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 42 REMOVE?

43 What saturation provides: 43 uG A /uG p 1 QsQs kTkT x 0, initial condition x 1 { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/14/4353457/slides/slide_43.jpg", "name": "What saturation provides: 43 uG A /uG p 1 QsQs kTkT x 0, initial condition x 1

44 Central jet plus forward π 0 : 44 ● Studying events with a jet at η ∼ 0 and a forward π 0 (p π T ≤p jet T, one-to-two scale process, proposed in DIS: Kwiecinski et al ‘99) would help to understand the mechanism of small-x dynamics: ➜ k T -ordered: DGLAP if p π T <

{ "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/14/4353457/slides/slide_44.jpg", "name": "Central jet plus forward π 0 : 44 ● Studying events with a jet at η ∼ 0 and a forward π 0 (p π T ≤p jet T, one-to-two scale process, proposed in DIS: Kwiecinski et al ‘99) would help to understand the mechanism of small-x dynamics: ➜ k T -ordered: DGLAP if p π T <


45 LHC studies: PbPb 45 ➜ EW bosons: nPDFs. ➜ VMs in UPCs: nPDFs. ➜ Multiplicities: particle production. ➜ Ridge: particle production. ➜... CMS, 1201.3093 W, CMS, 1205.6334 ATLAS, 1210.6486 Z, CMS, 1102.5435 Benchmarki ng Search es FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 45

46 LHC studies: PbPb 46 ➜ EW bosons: nPDFs. ➜ VMs in UPCs: nPDFs. ➜ Multiplicities: particle production. ➜ Ridge: particle production. ➜... ALICE, 1305.1467 Benchmarki ng Search es FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 46

47 LHC studies: PbPb 47 ➜ EW bosons: nPDFs. ➜ VMs in UPCs: nPDFs. ➜ Multiplicities: particle production. ➜ Ridge: particle production. ➜... Benchmarki ng Search es FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 47

48 LHC studies: PbPb 48 ➜ EW bosons: nPDFs. ➜ VMs in UPCs: nPDFs. ➜ Multiplicities: particle production. ➜ Ridge: particle production. ➜... CMS, 1105.2438 ALICE, 1109.2501 Benchmarki ng Search es FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 48

49 ➜ Ridge. ➜ Flow. ➜ Charged particles. ➜ Jets and interjet activity. ➜ VMs, HF. ➜ Back-to-back correlations, central/forward? ➜ EW bosons, DY? ➜ UPCs? ➜... LHC studies: pPb 49 CMS, 1210.5482 ALICE, 1212.2001 ATLAS, 1212.5198 Benchmarki ng Search es FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 49

50 ➜ Ridge. ➜ Flow. ➜ Charged particles. ➜ Jets and interjet activity. ➜ VMs, HF. ➜ Back-to-back correlations, central/forward? ➜ EW bosons, DY? ➜ UPCs? ➜... LHC studies: pPb 50 Benchmarki ng Search es ATLAS, 1303.2084 ALICE, 1307.3237 FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 50

51 ➜ Ridge. ➜ Flow. ➜ Charged particles. ➜ Jets and interjet activity. ➜ VMs, HF. ➜ Back-to-back correlations, central/forward? ➜ EW bosons, DY? ➜ UPCs? ➜... LHC studies: pPb 51 Benchmarki ng Search es ALICE, 1210.3615 ALICE, 1210.4520 CMS, HP2013 FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 51

52 ➜ Ridge. ➜ Flow. ➜ Charged particles. ➜ Jets and interjet activity. ➜ VMs, HF. ➜ Back-to-back correlations, central/forward? ➜ EW bosons, DY? ➜ UPCs? ➜... LHC studies: pPb 52 Benchmarki ng Search es CMS, 1401.4433 FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 52

53 ➜ Ridge. ➜ Flow. ➜ Charged particles. ➜ Jets and interjet activity. ➜ VMs, HF. ➜ Back-to-back correlations, central/forward? ➜ EW bosons, DY? ➜ UPCs? ➜... LHC studies: pPb 53 Benchmarki ng Search es LHCb, 1308.6729 ALICE, 1310.5492 CMS, 1312.6300 FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 53

54 ➜ Ridge. ➜ Flow. ➜ Charged particles. ➜ Jets and interjet activity. ➜ VMs, HF. ➜ Back-to-back correlations, central/forward? ➜ EW bosons, DY? ➜ UPCs? ➜... LHC studies: pPb 54 Benchmarki ng Search es LHCb, 1308.6729 ALICE, 1310.5492 CMS, 1312.6300 ● The existence of collective effects (ridge, flow, scaling of sequential Υ suppression with multiplicity,…) in pPb is somewhat unexpected. ● They may compromise the use of pPb as benchmark for PbPb. ● Are they really final state? Do they exist also in eA? FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 54

55 55 ● Elastic J/ψ production appears as a candidate to signal saturation effects at work!!! Linear, sensitivity to (xg) 2. Non- linear, saturation. LHC studies: pp/PbPb FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 55

56 In pPb@LHC: DY 56 ● Note: this is constrained by the shape of the nPDFs. And we were not pessimistic about data. ● Effect on sea and glue. 1309.537 1 FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 56

57 In pPb@LHC: DY 57 ● Note: this is constrained by the shape of the nPDFs. And we were not pessimistic about data. ● Effect on sea and glue. 1309.537 1 FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 57

58 In pPb@LHC: charged 58 ● Note: this is constrained by the shape of the nPDFs. ● Reduction of uncertainties around a factor 2 for glue. ● Tension may appear for some scenarios. 1309.537 1 ‘DGLAP’ (linear) pseudodata FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 58

59 In pPb@LHC: charged 59 ● Note: this is constrained by the shape of the nPDFs. ● Reduction of uncertainties around a factor 2 for glue. ● Tension may appear for some scenarios. 1309.537 1 ‘CGC’ (saturation) pseudodata FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 59

60 FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 60

61 Pb Temperature Baryonic density U. Heinz Explore QCD phase diagram: High temp. (>  QCD ~200 MeV) Low baryonic density (<<  0 ) Lattice QCD predicts phase transition at T c ~170 MeV Quark confinement removed From hadronic to partonic d.o.f.  Quark-Gluon Plasma high temperature high energy density low baryonic density High-density QCD in the final state: the Quark Gluon Plasma FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 61

62 Y(1S) melting at the FCC FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 62 Miao, Mócsy, Petreczky, NPA (2011)

63 FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 63

64 Top quark projection (FCC)  ttbar cross section x80 from 5.5 to 39 TeV  With L int =50-100/nb, x400-800 top wrt 10/nb@LHC5.5  With a detector similar to CMS, we have ~2-4x10 5 in the “observation (cleanest) channel”; could be 4-5x more in the other channels  Top cross section drops by 2 (3.5) orders of magnitude at p T = 0.5 (1) TeV  few 10 3 with p T > 0.5 TeV  few 10 2 with p T > 1 TeV FCC Kickoff WS, Geneva, 14.02.14 Andrea Dainese 64 M.Mangano, FHC informal meeting Nov 2013


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