电子产品 ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS FCC Rules control electromagnetic noise, protect radio frequency spectrum and telecommunications UL standards protect people from danger from electrical shock, fire and injury
激光设备 Laser Devices CD ROMs DVD 必须满足 FDA 要求 CDRH 要求 保护视力
核准方式 Types of Approvals Type of EquipmentStandard Information Technology Equipment Personal Computers Printers Fax machines Electronic games FCC Part 15 UL 1950 Telecommunications Equipment FCC Part 15 FCC Part 68 UL 1950 Home AppliancesUL (many standards) Medical EquipmentFCC Part 15 UL 2601 LightsUL Industrial EquipmentUL Radio Transmitters Remote control devices FCC Part 15 Radio-controls for games (airplanes)FCC Part 95 Calculators and WatchesNONE Battery-powered electronicsMaybe FCC Part 15
标签示例 EXAMPLE LABEL V I SN FI D NOM COMPANY NAME MODEL: XYZ123 LISTED ITE E EN VAC 50/60 Hz VA; A MADE IN CHINA FOR INDOOR USE ONLY FUSE REPLACEMENT: T1.2 LEVEL 3 LR12345 COMMON INFORMATION (Company and Ratings) US/CANADA UL and/or CSA WORLD MARKETS SPECIAL INFORMATION Use, Fuse,Warnings EN60950 NOM SN FI D V I JapanGermanyAustralia Sweden, Norway Finland, Denmark Mexico
FCC 管理和保护频谱 FCC CONTROLS AND PROTECTS FREQUENCY SPECTRUM 发射机 对讲机 蜂窝电话 电视 微波炉 卫星接收器 Canada has the same or very similar Technical Specifications
设备进口 IMPORTATION OF EQUIPMENT FCC Form 740 required for importing electronic equipment: “Statement Regarding the Importation of Radio Frequency Devices Capable of Causing Harmful Interference” Download from: ohttp://www.fcc.gov/formpage.html
一类产品和二类产品 CLASS A and CLASS B 一类产品：办公室和工业用品 二类产品： 居民用品
电子产品必须满足 FCC 法规 ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS MUST MEET FCC RULES Examples Personal ComputersVideo Games CD PlayersOffice machines Copying machinesElectronic toys Radio ReceiversTVs Fax machinesMicrowave ovens Class A Products oTest and Report Class B Products: Two Ways oMethod #1: Declaration of Conformity oMethod #2: Certification
FCC 核准 FCC APPROVALS 认证 oTransmitters and some computers 认证 ( 旧名：注册 ) oTelecommunications 一致性声明 oComputers and radio receivers 核实 oCommercial computers
重要的 FCC 法规 Important FCC Rule Parts FCC Part 2: 一般性要求 FCC Part 15: 数字式设备和低功发射机 FCC Part 18: 微波炉 FCC Part 22: 蜂窝电话 FCC Part 95: 遥控玩具
Part 15 的免除项 EXEMPTIONS to Part 15 NO FCC NECESSARY FOR THESE PRODUCTS Motor vehicles, aircraft and watercraft Electronic control systems by public utilities or in industrial plants Industrial, commercial or medical test equipment. Appliances. Specialized medical digital devices Medical diathermy equipment and ultrasonic equipment, while exempt from the Part 15 digital device standards, are subject to the regulations in Part 18 Digital devices that have a power consumption of 6 nanowatts or less, digital watches and solar calculators Joystick or mouse controllers
个人计算机、打印机和外设 PERSONAL COMPUTERS, PRINTERS & PERIPHERALS 在经批准的实验室测试 Test Product at approved Laboratory Report with Technical Information Declaration of Conformity Sell Product Declaration of Conformity. Does not go to the FCC
无线电发射机 RADIO TRANSMITTERS Examples Cordless Phones, Radio Transmitters, CB Radios, Wireless Products CERTIFICATION: Test Product Report with Technical Information Send Report and Application to FCC or TCB GRANT with FCC ID Number Sell Product
电信 连接到电话系统的设备 TELECOMMUNICATIONS Devices that connect to the phone system Examples Telephones, Fax Machines, Caller-ID, Modems, ADSL Devices Test Product Report with Technical Information Send Report and ACTA Registration Number CERTIFICATION or DOC: Sell Product
无线电发射机 Radio Transmitters Some radio transmitters must also comply with radiation hazard levels oCell Phones oHand-held radios oLow power radios “SAR” testing. How much does radio wave affect human tissue Expensive: $5,000 - $10,000
FCC 核准 FCC Approvals Determine Equipment type Is an “FCC Certification” Necessary? oOnly required for: oTransmitters oTelephones and modems oSome types of Radio Receivers o“scanning receivers” This requires submission of FCC paperwork oTest report and application form FCC Identifier Number (FCC ID)
FCC 核准 FCC Approvals FCC Approval is required for: Digital devices: oPCs, computers, fax machines, POS terminals, printers, digital electronics oCLASS A: Computer equipment that is marketed exclusively for use in business and industrial environments is called Class A equipment and requires verification (self approval) by the manufacturer. oCLASS B: Personal computer equipment marketed for use in residential environments is called Class B and requires either certification by the FCC or self-approval under the Declaration of Conformity process
一致性声明（ DOC ） DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY MAJOR PROVISIONS Applies to Class B personal computers and peripherals, TV Interface Devices and Radio Receivers Alternative to Certification. No submission to the FCC PROCEDURE Compliance testing at accredited laboratory. No testing required for products assembled from authorized modular components. COMPLIANCE INFORMATION STATEMENT COMPLIANCE INFORMATION SYSTEM TESTING LABORATORIES RESPONSIBLE PARTY TEST PROCEDURES
DOC 标签 DOC LABEL Assembled from approved components: System Tested This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation. The label shall not be a stick-on, paper label. The label shall be permanently affixed to the product and shall be readily visible to the purchaser at the time of purchase. "Permanently affixed" means that the label is etched, engraved, stamped, silkscreened, indelibly printed or otherwise permanently marked on a permanent attached part of the equipment or on a nameplate of metal, plastic, or other material fastened to the equipment by welding, riveting or a permanent adhesive. The label must be designed to last the expected lifetime of the equipment in the environment in which the equipment may be operated and must not be readily detachable.
申请认证 CERTIFICATION APPLICATION Cover Letters: oRequest for Confidentiality (if desired) oModifications Test Report from Lab User’s Manual Schematics Block Diagram Test Setup Photographs from Lab Internal/External Photographs by Lab FCC ID Label Artwork: FCC Label Position on Device Operational Description: Attestation Statements (for Transmitters)
FCC ID FCC ID: AAAnnnnnnnnnnnnnn AAA: is Grantee Code from FCC. Need to get the Grantee Code from FCC: nnnnnnnnnnnnnn: is from Manufacturer Get grantee code from web site “https://gullfoss.fcc.gov/prod/oet/index.html” Cost: $55 (one time only) The FCC ID number must be on all Certified Devices
FCC 发射机认证对照检查表 FCC TRANSMITTER CERTIFICATION CHECKLIST The Following is needed for testing: TEST UNITS (one or more) DRAWING OF ANTENNA DOCUMENTATION LABELLING INFORMATION
辐射测试 RADIATED EMISSIONS TESTING Test Site: Measure Radiated Noise from Equipment Case and Cables Measuring Antenna Product 3 m or 10 m Photos: EMC Test System, Austin, TX emctest.com Spectrum Analyzer Open Area Test Site Turntable
已进行的辐射测试 CONDUCTED EMISSIONS TESTING Measure Noise on Power Line Spectrum Analyzer LISN Product Power Cord
FCC 法规的变更 FCC RULE CHANGES Telecommunications Certification Bodies (TCBs) Electronic Filing with Internet Fast Approvals
安全性测试 SAFETY TESTING
美国对产品安全性的要求 PRODUCT SAFETY IN US WHY? oProduct Liability oCustomer demands oLegal requirements
美国的安全性测试 SAFETY TESTING IN US Underwriter's Laboratories, Inc. NRTLs: Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories o CSA, ETL, MET, DS&G, WYLE - "Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories" accredited by OSHA UL Mark is Accepted in Canada
安全标志 SAFETY MARKS UL "RECOGNIZED": Designation for components, sub-assemblies that meet certain criteria, but are generally not end-use products. Will be investigated for suitability in end product "LISTED": Reserved for end-use products that have been approved under a specific UL standard LISTED UL Mark for Canada: Accepted by all Canadian provinces CSA NRTL Symbol –Accepted by OSHA in the United States as safe. –One symbol for acceptance in Canada as well as the US NRTL
UL 标准（示例） UL STANDARDS (EXAMPLES) UL 60950: 信息技术设备 UL 1026: 家用电器 UL : 医用电气设备 UL 508: 工业控制设备
测试步骤 TEST PROCEDURE UL Testing Test Product UL Prepares Report Factory Inspection at Manufacturer Manufacturer Labels Products LISTING: Sell Product
一般性要求 General Requirements Labeling and marking Language User Instructions Service Information Design requirements Thermal and electrical characteristics Abnormal operation Connection to the supply Construction details / physical requirements
标签与标志 Labeling and Marking Rated voltage or voltage range: 115/230V~ or V~ or 230V~ or 400V 3~ Rated frequency: 50-60Hz or 50/60Hz Rated current or power: 10/5A or 10-5A; 200W or 200VA NOTE: 230/ 400V~ are the harmonized voltages for the European Union.
标签与标志 Labeling and Marking Manufacturer’s name or registered trademark. Model or type number. Fuse replacement info (if applicable). IEC symbols wherever possible. Warnings and Cautions appropriate for the particular equipment.
语言 Language ‘Safety-related’ information to be in appropriate language. Service Instructions may be in English. Many times, the entire User Manual must be translated (for specific market areas, dependent on intended end-user, etc).
使用说明 User Instructions Installation Instructions - information regarding mounting, connection to the supply, ventilation, etc. All information regarding use, cleaning, maintenance (if necessary). All safety warnings and cautions.
服务信息 Service Information Fuse and component replacement information. Special instructions to avoid hazards. Schematics, wiring diagrams. Special field installation and/or supply connection information.
不正常的操作 Abnormal Operation “None of the following conditions shall create a hazard within the meaning of the Standard:” Fan Fail Transformer Overload Component Short- and Open-circuits Failure of unapproved Thermal Limiting device. Locked Rotor. and others, depending upon equipment.
其它市场 OTHER MARKETS Europe: EU Directive approach to compliance Non-EU Europe: May accept CE Marking Australia: C-Tick Mark for EMC (CISPR emissions now) Japan: VCCI- Voluntary Control Council for Interference (CISPR emissions only) South Africa: Emissions requirements only Mexico: NOM Certification
CE 标志 CE MARKING CE Marking is for European Union oEMC Directive oLow Voltage Directive (Safety) oMachinery Directive (Safety) Self-Declaration allowed for many products
标签示例 EXAMPLE LABEL V I SN FI D NOM COMPANY NAME MODEL: XYZ123 LISTED ITE E EN VAC 50/60 Hz VA; A MADE IN CHINA FOR INDOOR USE ONLY FUSE REPLACEMENT: T1.2 LEVEL 3 LR12345 COMPANY NAME OR MODEL NUMBER US/CANADA UL and/or CSA SPECIAL INFORMATION Use, Fuse,Warnings VOLTAGE FREQUENCY POWER OR CURRENT UL & CSA allow manufacturers to use “E” number or “LR” number instead of Manufacturer’s Name
一般性费用 GENERAL COSTS Costs for FCC Approval oTesting for PCs and Digital Devices: $ oTesting for Transmitters: $ oTesting for Telecommunications: $2500 oFCC Fees: oLow Power Transmitters: $1000 oHigh Power Transmitters: $1000 oTelecommunications: $500 Costs for UL oTesting Fees: $ oUL Fees: $ ,000 Price depends on equipment
New Technologies Wireless Growth in US More than 300 new Wireless products are approved every month LANs Bluetooth Alarm Systems
US Electronics Industry $550B Industry $200B~Export Industry in 2001 Telecom export market ~$4.5B
Wireless Broadband Market Access Estimates oFrost & Sullivan's North American Broadband Wireless Access Services Market o2000: Wireless broadband service $842.3M o2007: >$10B(?)
Wireless LAN Market Size VDC, ( Natick, MA): Global Market for Wireless LAN related equipment INICs, bridges, residential gateways) o2001: $923M o2002: $1,050M o2003: $1,426.3M o2004: $1,906M o2005: $2,384M
Communications and Imaging New wider bandwidth technologies necessary to implement short range communication devices oIEEE for LANS oIEEE a (TG3a) for PANs oDevices worn on or located near the body oPDAs oHPCs (Handheld Personal Computers) Collision Avoidance
What’s the Trend? Market Potential for Wireless Technologies Growth Rates of Chipsets by Technology
Comparison of Short Range Data Capability
Challenges: Looking Forward Interference Security Issues Intercompatibility Integration & Standardization oUMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) oFrequency Harmonization Charging for Access: How to make $?