Presentation on theme: "Group Dynamics The social process by which people interact in a group environment The influences of personality, power and behavior on the group process."— Presentation transcript:
1 Group DynamicsThe social process by which people interact in a group environmentThe influences of personality, power and behavior on the group process
3 Defining and Classifying Groups Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.Formal GroupA designated work group defined by the organization’s structure.Informal GroupA group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact.
4 Defining and Classifying Groups (cont’d) Command GroupA group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager.Task GroupThose working together to complete a job or task.Interest GroupThose working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned.Friendship GroupThose brought together because they share one or more common characteristics.
5 Why People Join Groups Security Status Self-esteem Affiliation Power Goal Achievement
6 GROUP DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Forming Stage The first stage in group development, characterized bymuch uncertainty.orientation, guidance (dependence)Politewhy are we hereIntroductions are madeFirst ImpressionsDisclosure and Feedback areavoided
7 GROUP DEVELOPMENT STORM STAGE Storming Stage The second stage in group development, characterized by intra group conflict.conflict,individual recognitionBids for PowerCliquesHidden AgendasEmotions run highResolution by Vote
8 Norming Stage The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness.issue resolution, develop social agreements, cohesion, establish group norms (interdependence)ListeningCreativityRole Identity
9 GROUP DEVELOPMENT PERFORM STAGE Performing StageThe fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional.mutual assistance, creativity, understanding goals and rolesHigh Morale and Esprit Intense Loyalty Individual Creativity
10 Adjourning StageThe final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance.closure, symbolism, ceremonies, and emotional support
12 Punctuated-Equilibrium Model Temporary groups under time constrained deadlines go through transitions between inertia and activity---at the half-way point, they experience an increase in productivity.Sequence of actions:Setting group directionFirst phase of inertiaHalf-way point transitionMajor changesSecond phase of inertiaAccelerated activity
14 Group PropertiesRolesNormsStatusSizeCohesiveness
15 Group Properties - Roles A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.Role IdentityCertain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role.Role PerceptionAn individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation.
16 Group Properties - Roles (cont’d) Role ExpectationsHow others believe a person should act in a given situation.Psychological ContractAn unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee and vice versa.Role Ambiguity - worker is unclear of job definition;
17 Role ConflictA situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations.
18 Group Properties - Norms Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members.Classes of Norms:Performance normsAppearance normsSocial arrangement normsAllocation of resources norms
19 NormsThe standards (degrees of acceptability and unacceptability) for conduct that help individuals judge what is right or good or bad in a given social setting.Are culturally derived and vary from one culture to another.Are usually unwritten, yet have a strong influence on individual behavior.May go above and beyond formal rules and written policies.
20 Reasons that groups enforce norms To facilitate the survival of the group.To simplify or clarify role expectations.To help group members avoid embarrassing situations.To express key group values and enhance the group’s unique identity.OstracismRejection by the group for violation of its norms.
21 Group Properties - Norms Deviant Workplace BehaviorAntisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate established norms and result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both.Group norms can influence thepresence of deviant behavior.
22 Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior Category Examples Production Leaving early Intentionally working slowly Wasting resourcesProperty Sabotage Lying about hours worked Stealing from the organizationPolitical Showing favoritism Gossiping and spreading rumors Blaming coworkersPersonal Aggression Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from coworkers
23 Group Properties - Status Status: A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others.Power over OthersAbility to ContributePersonal CharacteristicsNorms & InteractionGroup Member StatusOther things influencing or influenced by statusStatus InequityNational Culture
25 Group Properties - Size Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.Group SizePerformanceExpectedActual (due to loafing)Other conclusions:Odd number groups do better than even.Groups of 5 to 7 perform better overall than larger or smaller groups.
26 Group Properties - Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.Increasing group cohesiveness:Make the group smaller.Encourage agreement with group goals.Increase time members spend together.Increase group status and admission difficultly.Stimulate competition with other groups.Give rewards to the group, not individuals.Physically isolate the group.
27 Group Decision Making Decision-making Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex tasks.Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the implementation of complex tasks.
28 Group Decision Making (cont’d) StrengthsMore complete informationIncreased diversity of viewsHigher quality of decisions (more accuracy)Increased acceptance of solutionsWeaknessesMore time consuming (slower)Increased pressure to conformDomination by one or a few membersAmbiguous responsibility
29 GroupthinkPhenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative course of action.
30 Groupthink Groupthink (Irving Janis) Symptoms of Groupthink A mode of thinking (blind conformity) that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.Symptoms of GroupthinkExcessive optimismAn assumption of inherent moralitySuppression of dissentA desperate quest for unanimity
31 Groupthink (cont’d) Preventing Groupthink Avoid using of groups as rubberstamps.Urge each group member to think independently.Bring in outside experts for fresh perspectives.Assign someone the role of devil’s advocate.Take time to consider possible effects and consequences of alternative courses of action.
32 Symptoms Of The Groupthink Phenomenon Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made.Members apply direct pressures on those who express doubts about shared views or who question the alternative favored by the majority.Members who have doubts or differing points of view keep silent about misgivings.There appears to be an illusion of unanimity.
33 Group Decision-Making Techniques Interacting GroupsTypical groups, in which the members interact with each other face-to-face.Nominal Group TechniqueA group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion.
34 Group Decision-Making Techniques BrainstormingAn idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.Electronic MeetingA meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes.Delphi technique