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Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BC) – War Of Independence(1857)

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Presentation on theme: "Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BC) – War Of Independence(1857)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BC) – War Of Independence(1857)

2 THE SOCIETY OF SOUTH ASIA BEFORE THE ADVENT OF ISLAM The Ancient Civilization of the Indus valley Indus Civilization Is About 5000 Years Old

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6 Moen-jo-Daro Means “MOUND OF DEAD “ The biggest trade market of south asia at the time Modern city of its time People may originated from Balochistan area like Sumeria’s Inhabitant were Dravidians Politically organized by a unit or empire or not Occupationally framers, craftsman and traders Worshipped Mother goddess figurines but also male gods Moen-jo-Daro and Harappa

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12 Down Fall  Floods : moen-jo-daro was destroyed seven times by floods  River Shift its bed  By 1990 BC trade b/w Sumeria’s and Indus valley had come to an end  Attacked by invaders specially Aryans

13 Around 2000 BC they were leaving their homeland ‘Central Asia’ Between BC they were migrating into pakistan area They were rough people and fighters Professionally Farmers, carpenters, blacksmith and mainly traders Worshiped different forces of nature but after came into Indus valley they start worship mainly male gods Aryans cast division: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shudras and Chandalas Rig Veda sacred book of Hindus Aryans In South Asia The social conditions of Aryans

14 Aryan’s Migrations

15 Rig Veda original manuscript 

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17 Gautama buddha real name “siddhartha” son of ruler of kapal vastu and lived around 500 BC Preaching: ‘nirvana’, no living must be killed, don’t tell lie, avoid drinking, give up Success: He was flawless and belonged to Rajas family Hindus VS buddhism : About 2300 years ago “Ashok” was first emperor of buddist Influence of buddhism on hindism: They kept their door open to all Buddhism

18 Expansion of Buddism

19 Religion in Asia

20 The condition of south asia at the arrival of the muslims The condition of south asia at the arrival of the muslims : After Ashoka buddism remain in north of S.Asia due to weak emperors Hindus staged back but after ‘Harsha’ last great king the region divided into small kingdoms The time of Muslims attack ‘Raja Dahir’ was the ruler of ‘Daibal’ to ‘Multan’ The causes of the muslim invasion of sindh The causes of the muslim invasion of sindh : Pirates looted Arab fleet at Daibal Ships carried gifts from the ruler of Sirlanka Pirates also prisoners Muslim men, women and children Raja Dahir refused to help or taking any responsibility THE ARRIVAL OF MUSLIMS IN SOUTH ASIA

21 Muhammad Bin Qasim Muhammad Bin Qasim : Son in law of Hajjaj bin Yousuf (governor of Iraq under Abbasids Caliph Walid I) attacked Sindh in 711 AD The Conquest Of Daibal The Conquest Of Daibal The Conquest Of Multan : The Conquest Of Multan : In 713 AD the region of Daibal to Multan came under Muslim rule Muhammad Bin Qasim’s Treatment Of The Local Population The Result Of The Conquest Of Sindh

22 Land And Sea Route Used By Muhammad Bin Qasim

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24 THE MUSLIM RULE IN SOUTH ASIA Salateen-e-delhi Salateen-e-delhi : After 300 Years Subaktagin Attacked S.Asia Between Mahmud Ghaznavi Attacked Seventeen Times After 150 Years Muhammad Ghauri Attacked S.Asia Temple Of Somnath

25 In 1206 AD Deputy Of Muhammad Ghauri, Qutubuddin Aibak Laid First Stable Islamic Empire In Delhi And The Most Famous Successors Are Altutmish And Balban After This Dynasty Khilji Dynasty Came. Greatest Emperor Was Allauddin Khilji

26 Tughlaq Dynasty : Muhammd Tughlaq And Feroz Shah Tughlaq In 1398 Ad Taimur Lang Attacked Delhi Lodhi Dynasty Feroz Shah Tughlaq

27 The Mughal Empire

28 In 1526 AD Babar Defeat Ibrahim Lodhi Zaheeruddin Muhammad Babur 1526–1530 Founder of the Mughal Dynasty. Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun 1530–1540 Sher Shah Suri 1540–1545 Islam Shah Suri 1545–1554 Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun 1555–1556 Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar 1556–1605 Lahore Fort. Nooruddin Muhammad Jahangir 1605–1627 relations with the British East India Company Shahaabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan 1627–1658 the Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Jahangir mausoleum, and Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. Deposed and imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb Mohiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir 1658–1707 Bahadur Shah I 1707–1712 Jahandar Shah 1712–1713 Furrukhsiyar 1713–1719 In 1717 he granted a firman to the English East India Company granting them duty free trading rights for Bengal and confirmed their position in India

29 Rafi Ul-Darjat 1719 Rafi Ud-Daulat a.k.a Shah Jahan II 1719 Nikusiyar 1719 Muhammad Ibrahim 1720 Muhammad Shah 1719–1748 Ahmad Shah Bahadur 1748–54 Alamgir II 1754–1759 Shah Jahan III In 1759 consolidation of the "Nizam" of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, during the Battle of Buxar. Hyder Ali becomes Nawab of Mysore in 1761 Shah Alam II 1759–1806 Ahmed-Shah-Abdali in 1761 defeated the Marathas during the Third Battle of Panipat; The fall of Tipu Sultan of Mysore in 1799 Akbar Shah II 1806–1837 Bahadur Shah Zafar 1837–1857 The last Mughal Emperor was deposed by the British and exiled to Burma following the Great Mutiny.

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31 Taj Mahal Red Fort in Delhi Lalbagh Fort, DhakaLahore Fort

32 THE REASONS FOR THE DOWNFALL OF MUSLIMS IN SOUTH ASIA Civil Wars Against Muslim Governors Absence Of Spirit Of Jihad Addicted to comfort and luxury British Invasion

33 Timeline (1400 AD AD) 1492 Slave traders expend to America 1498 Vasco da gama descovered sea route to S.Asia 1600 East India Company in S.Asia 1615 Sir Thomas Roe got trade privilages Vasco da gama

34 1756 Ali Vardi Khan died and he was succeeded by Siraj-ud-Daula English refused to dismantled fortification He conquered Calcutta but Commander Manik Chand Conspired rd June Siraj-ud-Daula lost battle of Plassy and killed by his Commander-in-chief Mir Jaffar 1760 Mir Jaffar replaced by Mir Qasim by English in Bengal 1761 Ahmed Shah Abdali crushed Marathas at Panipat 1764 Battle of Buxar were lost by Mir Qasim co-operated by (Shujauddaula of Oudh and Mughal emperor Shah Alam II) 1766 Hyder Ali took the government of Mysore 1767 First Mysore War 1782 Hyder Ali died but Second Mysore War was still on

35 1784 Tipu Sultan returned conquered territories in term 1784 Bihar and Orissa occupied by English rd War English and Marathas attacked Mysore 1792 Tipu sued for peace, his half state ceded and two of his sons were handed over to English as hostages 1799 Tipu was Martyr in 4 th War against English and Nizam 1843 Sindh occupied by English 1849 Punjab occupied by English 1856 Law passed that Indian soldier sent anywhere to fight

36 The War Of Independence Of Jan new rifles were introduced 1857 May 10 Sunday Indian soldier freed their friends and marched for Delhi 1857 Sep General Nicholson marched into Delhi with the army of 55, Nov 1 War ended and British Government took over S.Asia directly 1862 Bahadur Shah Zafar died in prison

37 Causes Employment opportunities decreased Indian industries destroyed due to cheap machinery English already captured many territories and alarmed others Christianity by force Immediate Cause Cartridge Controversy Fifty indian soldiers were court martialled and sent to jail Next day war spread out

38 Consequences Muslims and Hindus both are equally responsible but only Muslims were accountable for it Last Muhgal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar sent to prisoner to Rangoon After war British Government felt that East India Company was cruel and inefficient and brought S.Asia directly into the control of British Crown

39 References: A History of people of Pakistan by A.Hussain پاکستان میں تہذیب کا ارتقاء تحریر سبط حسن (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mughal_Empire)


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