Powers of the President VETO POWER Every bill and every order, resolution or vote must be presented to the president for approval. This requirement, however, does not apply to constitutional amendments, procedural rules of each house, and several other types of legislative action as stated in Article 1 Section 7 of the Constitution. Under the Constitution, the president has ten days (not counting Sundays) to consider legislation presented for approval. The president has three options: sign the bill, make it a law; veto the bill; or take no action on the bill during the ten-day period. If the president vetoes the bill, it can be overridden by a two-thirds majority of both houses of Congress. If the president takes no action, after ten days the law automatically will be created if the President does not respond. The veto gives the president enormous power to influence the writing of legislation. By threatening a veto before legislation is passed, the president can force Congress to compromise and pass amendments it would otherwise find unacceptable.
Executive Orders The Presidential Executive Order has the force and effect of law by carrying out a provision of the Constitution, a federal statute, or a treaty. The President is not directly given this power by the Constitution to promulgate executive orders. Instead, this power has been inferred from the president's obligation to faithfully execute the laws. To notify the public of the actions which have taken place, Proclamations and executive orders are published in the Federal Register.
Powers of Appointment The president has the power to appoint ambassadors, cabinet officers, and federal judges. Upper-level executive branch officials, are appointed at the discretion of the president or department head without a review from the senate. The ability for the President to appoint a Federal judge gives the President a life long ally who agrees with the Presidents beliefs and views.
Pardon Power “grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment” as stated by the Constitution this is the pardon power which the President has control over. The president may pardon any individual from a federal crime, and dismiss them from any punishment and return their civil rights. The president can also alter a punishment or reduce or increase the estimated time which the punishment should take place. Presidential Impoundment Presidential Impoundment is the refusal of the chief executive to expend funds. Thomas Jefferson was the first president to impound funds, and many other presidents have followed suit.
The Power to Convene Congress The constitution requires the President to inform the congress periodically of “the state of the union” and authorizes the President to convene either or both houses of congress on “extraordinary occasions”. The power to convene Congress was important when Congress did not sit in nearly year round sessions.
The Power to Make Treaties The Presidents power to make treaties with foreign nations is checked by the Constitutions stipulation that all treaties must be approved by at least two thirds of the members of the senate. The senate approves about 70 percent of the treaties submitted to it by the President. Only 16 treaties that have been put to a vote have been rejected often under highly biased conditions. An example of which is the Treaty of Versailles. We really didn’t know how to phrase this any better so yes the majority of this section is straight from the book.
Foreign Policy Powers The President and executive branch can create foreign policy through these acts. 1) -- responses to foreign events 2) -- proposals for legislation 3) -- negotiation of international agreements 4) -- policy statements 5) -- policy implementation 6) -- independent action. The Constitution divides the foreign policy powers between the President and Congress. To advance America’s national security, the President is committed to using all elements of American power, including the strength of America’s values. Foreign Policies have dramatically changed, after the 9/11 attack on the United States.
Presidential War Powers Presidents have the right to declare war, they can also by pass the congress when declaring war. Presidents can also declare less than war. Executive Order prohibits assassination. This does not have the force of law but is a presidential statement that can be repealed, modified, or suspended at any time by the President.
The First Lady Has assisted the President since Martha Washingtons time. They have been informal advisors, while also making other, more public, and significant contributions to American society. The First Lady is always right behind the President though she may not always be noticed. George Bushs wife fundraised money for the improvements and legal status of women in Afghanistan and Iraq.
The Cabinet The Cabinet is an informal institution based on practice, and precedent whose membership is determined by tradition and presidential discretion. The cabinets main goal is to assist the President in executing the laws and accompany him in his decision making process and choices. While the size of the presidents cabinet has amplified over the years, most presidents dependence on their cabinet secretaries has reduced.
The White House Staff The associates of the White House Staff are directly responsible to the President. There is a Chief of Staff whose job is to facilitate the smooth running of the staff and executive branch of government. Successful chiefs often save the President from making simple faults or Presidential errors. The Councilor to the President, domestic, foreign, and economic policy strategists are also key players in The White House Staff.
Public Opinion A huge quality of the President is his personality and his ability to sway the publics opinion. Before the media Presidents attempted to reach out to the public and gain support for their programs through what President Theodore Roosevelt called “the bully pulpit” Modern day technology has substantially improved publicity of candidates campaign.
Presidential Leadership Leadership remains an indefinable concept for scholars to classify and measure. It is an important quality to have to gain support for their programs and policy's. Great leaders such as Washington, Lincoln, Jefferson, and F.D.R seem to be extolled time and time again. Research shows, from political scientists, that leadership can increase with the help of public attention to specific issues. Often the difference between great and average presidents is their leadership styles and their ability to grasp the concept of great leadership strategies.
Presidential Qualifications The constitution requires that the president (and the vice president,whose major function is to succeed the president in the event of death or disability) be a natural born citizen of the United States. At least 35 years of age Must be a resident of the United States for at least 14 years.