2Objective To become familiar with the components of the Fundamental 5 and to discoverthe advantages of implementingstrategies designed to reinforce learning.
3ProductCreate a note taking guide where you will collect and synthesize strategies that can be used to enhance learning and incorporate Fundamental 5 components in the classroom.
4What are the Fundamental Five? FramethelessonTeachin thePowerZonePraiseandEncouragementCriticalWritingSmallGroupPurposefulTalk5 behaviors that all teachers should display in the classroom.
5Objective Product Frame the lesson Frame the Lesson Objective By knowing where you intend to go, you increase the chances of you and the learner ending up thereGuides the teacher relative to the planning of instruction, delivery of instructionBefore the lesson is prepared, the teacher should have a clear idea of what the teaching objectives are. What, specifically, should the student be able to do, understand, care about as a result of the teaching.ProductGuides the learner; helps him/her focus and set prioritiesAllows for analysis in terms of the levels of teachingStudents should be able to recap what you have taught them, telling or showing you what they have learned.
6objectiveRobert Mager, in his book Preparing Instructional Objectives, describes an objective as "a collection of words and/or pictures and diagrams intended to let others know what you intend for your students to achieve" (pg. 3).
7Tips for daily objective Place in the classroom where students can see the written objective and productDiscuss the objective at the beginning of the lessonMake sure it is reasonable to complete the objective in one daily lesson or classThe objective must be specific enough to clarify the goalThe objective needs to be “kid friendly” language
8A product is: Completed by every student Done the last 5 minutes of class or the end of the lessonA final check for understandingProof for the teacher that learning has occurredLikely to increase the opportunity for a student to retain important learningLooked at daily by the teacher to guide future instruction
9A product is not Test or quiz Designed to be a grade daily Usually done in a groupUsually verbal except as appropriate in the lower grades
10Examples of Products Language Arts Classify Describe Interpret I will classify the words of given sentences into categories of parts of speech.DescribeI will describe the procedures of a formal debate.InterpretI will interpret passages of literature.
11Examples of Products Science Classify: Given several examples of each, I will classify materials according to their physical properties as gas, liquid, or solid.Estimate:I will estimate the amount of heat given off by one liter of air compressed to one-half its original volume.Predict:From a description of the climate and soils of an area, I will predict the plant ecology of the area.
12Examples of products Mathematics Distinguish Locate: DistinguishGiven pairs of numbers, one number of each pair a prime number, I will identify the prime number in each pair.Locate:I will locate a particular desk in his classroom by stating the row it is in and the ordinal position from the front of the room. "John's desk is the fourth one from the front, in the second row, from the east wall.”
13ProductsWebsite that gives examples of student products based on Bloom’s Taxonomy
14Tips for the Daily product The product can easily be completed individually by every student in 5 minutes or less at the end of the lessonThe product produces evidence of learningThe product requires students to use higher order thinking skills at the application stage or higherThe teacher needs to be able to look quickly at the product to assess learning
15Bloom’s Taxonomy Wheel Bloom’s wheel with verbs for the objective in the orange section and verbs for the product in the blue-green section. The levels are in purple in the middle.
17Product ACTIVITY P= R= review important concepts O= D= U= C= T= Create an acrostic using the letters of PRODUCT to communicate what you know about the subject. Fill out as many as you can by yourself and then share with a partner by doing a Chair Touch.P=R= review important conceptsO=D=U=C=T=Share with a partner using Chair Touch.Create an acrostic using the letters of PRODUCT to communicate what you know about the subject.Example:P = provide a concluding activityR = review what was learnedO = organize learned contentD = demonstrate activity outcome, determine concepts which need to be re-taughtU = understandC = connect learning to real-worldT =
18Teacher asks a question or poses a problem for discussion. Chair TouchTeacher asks a question or poses a problem for discussion.Teacher calls out a number of chairs to touch.Group wanders around room silently touching chairs as they count.As soon as the last chair is touched, the participants stop where they are and form a pair with nearest person.Ask a question about Framing the lesson to check for understanding
20Power zoneIt’s more important to use the classroom space for learning rather than teaching!Teachers want to give students the best possible learning experiences. We don't do this if we simply lecture students directly, and never offer students other ways to experience learning. We have to accept that it's more important for our students to learn than it is for us to teach. So teachers should plan to have some learning activities where students can work with other students in pairs or groups, where they can walk around the classroom seeking out information, where they are able to have some choice and control over what they do and where they do it.
21What is the power zone?“There is a distinct correlation between the teacher's body position in the classroom and student success.” Pozzer-Ardenghi, L., & Roth, W.-M. (manuscript submitted for publication). Action and Interaction in the Classroom: Teacher's Movement and Associated Pedagogical and Discursive Practices.
22Why teach in The Power zone? MonitorUnder-standingAddressproblembehaviorimmediatelyAnswerquestionsManagetransitionsCommuni-catewith allstudentsMaximizestudentlearningShowgenuineinterest inPersonalconnectionwith studentPromoteEquitablelearning forall studentsReasons to teach in the power zoneMonitor understandingAddress problem behavior directly and immediatelyAnswer questionsCommunicate with all studentsManage transitionsMaximize student learningShow a genuine interest in your studentsMake a personal connection with the studentPromote equitable learning for all students
23Teach in the Power Zone Picture your classroom. Draw what a classroom set up might look like when it is specifically designed for teaching in the POWER ZONE.
24Power zone Activity Power Zone What are the 3 areas? Classroom ManagementAddress unwanted behavior immediatelyManage transitionsIncrease proximityBuild RelationshipsConnect with students personallyShow genuine interestBuild rapport fasterImproves TeachingMonitor and adjust personal instructionAnswer QuestionsProvide immediate feedbackDifferentiate when neededProvide clarificationPowerWhat are the 3 areas?Use numbered heads together to fill in which sentence from the pyramid goes with the statement in the circle.Draw what a classroom set up might look like when it is designed for a teacher walking around.Monitor understandingAddress problem behavior directly and immediatelyAnswer questionsCommunicate with all studentsManage transitionsMaximize student learningShow a genuine interest in your studentsMake a personal connection with the studentPromote equitable learning for all studentsZone
25Numbered heads together Have students form teams of 4.Have students within each team count off from 1-4.The teacher asks a question.Students put their heads together and collaboratively generate an answer.Members of the team make sure each member can answer the question.The teacher calls a number at random. All students assigned that number stand or raise their hands; one of these students is selected to answer the question.Students stay standing until their answer is presented by another group.Fill out previous map regarding the power zone to know if they understand the concept. Then go back to slide 24.
27What is Praise and Encouragement “Compliments and encouragement go a long way towards making children feel good. Descriptive praise, where you tell the child exactly what it is that you like, works best of all. On top of that, praising children when they’re behaving well is likely to make them want to keep behaving well.” Raising Children Network (Australia) Limited
28Praise and Encouragement Select and define a behavior to increase.Choose reinforcers.Deliver positive reinforcement.Monitor student performanceQuick assessment of student learning
29Listen to music on a Walkman Sensory ReinforcersListen to music on a WalkmanChoose a posterView a kaleidoscopeBlowing BubblesSit in a rocking chairPlay a CD in a boom boxSelect a perfumeThese are things you can hear, see, smell, or touch. Like all reinforcers, these are most effective when they are appropriate for the student’s age, interest, and ability level.
30Erasing the blackboard Natural ReinforcersPlaying a gameErasing the blackboardWatching a movieBeing a team captainAn easy way to identify natural reinforcers is to watch what students enjoy doing during free time.Or better yet, watch carefully and keep track of what they most often ask to do. Natural reinforcers arealso privileges—everyday things we often take for granted. Remember, the reinforcementShould match the effort required to earn it.Playing a gameErasing the blackboardWatching a movieBeing a team captainReading a comic bookPutting up a bulletin boardFree time with a friend Operating equipmentShooting basketsBeing an office assistantAccess to school vending machinesStaying up lateMachinesSitting next to a friendHanding out calculators
31Material reinforcersCD’sPencilsPlastic AntsBookmarksErasersIn contrast to natural reinforcers, material reinforcers are usually more effective for students who initially require immediate reinforcement in smaller amounts. Again, pair the reinforcer with a praise statement. Through pairing, the student gradually becomes motivated by praise alone. You can find more unique material reinforcers in costume shops, flea markets, magic or trick shops, and novelty stores.StickersCD’sPencilsPlastic AntsBookmarksWax teethErasersHand BuzzersTrading CardsDisappearing InkMovie TicketsMagic Tricks
32Generalized Reinforcers Raffle ticketsTokensPointsCreditsA generalized reinforcer is any item that can later be exchanged for something of value. This is an excellent method to help students delay gratification.
33Social ReinforcersA smileA thumbs upA high fiveProximitySocial reinforcers are very effective when used alone. However, they are often paired or used simultaneously when giving other reinforcers. Through pairing, a student gradually becomes motivated by social reinforcers alone as other forms of reinforcement are faded.
35Clock Buddies ActivitY Make an appointment with a different person for 12 o’clock, 3 o’clock, 6 o’clock and 9 o’clock. Be sure you both record the appointments on your clocks. Only make the appointment if there is an open slot at that hour on both of your clocks.
36Objective To become familiar with the components of the Fundamental 5 and to discoverthe advantages of implementingstrategies designed to reinforce learning.
37ProductCreate a note taking guide where you will collect and synthesize strategies that can be used to enhance learning and incorporate Fundamental 5 components in the classroom.
38Clock Buddy ActivityWhat did you implement in your classroom based on your new learning regarding Objective and Product, the Powerzone and Praise and Encouragment?Share with your 12 o’clock buddy
41Effective Praise Ineffective Praise 1. Is delivered contingently upon student performance of desirable behaviors or genuine accomplishment1. Is delivered randomly and indiscriminately without specific attention to genuine accomplishment2. Specifies the praiseworthy aspects of the student's accomplishments2. Is general or global, not specifying the success.3. Is expressed sincerely, showing spontaneity, variety and other non-verbal signs of credibility.3. Is expressed blandly without feeling or animation, and relying on stock, perfunctory phrases.4. Is given for genuine effort, progress, or accomplishment which are judged according to standards appropriate to individuals.4. Is given based on comparisons with others and without regard to the effort expended or significance of the accomplishment of an individual.5. Provides information to students about their competence or the value of their accomplishments.5. Provides no meaningful information to the students about their accomplishments.6. Helps students to better appreciate their thinking, problem-solving and performance.6. Orients students toward comparing themselves with others.7. Attributes student success to effort and ability, implying that similar successes can be expected in the future.7. Attributes student success to ability alone or to external factors such as luck or easy task.8. Encourages students to appreciate their accomplishments for the effort they expend and their personal gratification.8. Encourages students to succeed for external reasons -- to please the teacher, win a competition or reward, etc.Encouragement, on the other hand:*Offers specific feedback rather than general comments. For example,instead of saying, "Terrific job," teachers can comment on specificbehaviors that they wish to acknowledge.*Is teacher-initiated and private. Privacy increases the potential foran honest exchange of ideas and an opportunity for the student to talkabout his or her work.*Focuses on improvement and efforts rather than evaluation of a finishedproduct.*Uses sincere, direct comments delivered with a natural voice.*Does not set students up for failure. Labels such as "nice" or"terrific" set students up for failure because they cannot always be"nice" or "terrific".*Helps students develop an appreciation of their behaviors andachievements.*Avoids competition or comparisons with others.*Works toward self-satisfaction from a task or product.Children have an intrinsic desire to learn. Ineffective praise can stifle students' natural curiosity and desire to learn by focusing their attention on extrinsic rewards rather than the intrinsic rewards that come from the task itself (Brophy, 1981). This kind of praise replaces a desire to learn with blind conformity, a mechanical work style, or even open defiance. On the other hand, teachers who encourage students create an environment in which students do not have to fear continuous evaluation, where they can make mistakes and learn from them, and where they do not always need to strive to meet someone else's standard of excellence. Most students thrive in encouraging environments where they receive specific feedback and have the opportunity to evaluate their own behavior and work. Encouragement fosters autonomy, positive self-esteem, a willingness to explore, and acceptance of self and others.
43Small group purposeful talk “In the area of intellectual development, young adolescents prefer active over passive learning activities. They prefer interaction with peers during learning activities.” This We Believe: Developmentally Responsive Middle Schools, NMSA
44What is Small Purposeful TAlk FrequentSmall GroupContent Discussion based on objective (SE’s)Planned DiscussionFrequent = about every 10 minutesWhy is this important? Student talk is more powerful talk. Listening to each other versus listening to the teacher all day long.Smaller group for easier assessment.Differentiate on the fly.Important to build these small group purposeful talk “moments” into the lesson as you are planning.
45Small Group Purposeful Talk SuggestionsPartner talkTurn and talkShoulder partnerFace partnerThink pair and shareCommunication is essential for learning. Having students work quietly-and by themselves-limits their learning opportunities. Interaction helps children clarify their ideas, get feedback for their thinking, and hear other points of view. Students can learn from one another as well as from their teachers.Quote Research retention 70%Reinforce purposeful talkStructuredPlanningWhen you communicate expectations to your kidsHelps make whole group questioning, after share more emotionally safe.
46Shoulder Partner TalkTalk to your shoulder partner about when, in the planning process, teachers should create small group purposeful talk questions and or topics?On what should these questions and or topics be based?
48The basic steps of Think-Pair-Share are Question: Ask an open-ended question and tell students that they will think-pair-share the answer.Think: Give students 1-2 minutes to think quietly about their response to the question. Walk around the room to reinforce this quiet, on-task response.Pair: Ask students to share thoughts with their partners and ask questions if they don't understand what their partner is saying. Circulate around the room, listening to student conversations.Share: Ask for student volunteers to share as you begin this process. Later, you should call on non-volunteers to increase student accountability in this cooperative learning strategy. Reinforce the expectation of active listening by requiring students to acknowledge the thoughts of classmates by saying:I agree with [name's] answer...,I don't agree with [name's] answer...,I started the problem like [name] but then I...LD kidsLED2 modes of processprocess questionsprocess answersShare about the cone of learning (Use Bloom’s Questions)
49Clock Buddy activity Think Pair and Share After looking at the Cone of Learning, would you do anything different in your classroom?What would you do differently? Why?Share with your 6 o’clock appointment
50Benefits of small group purposeful talk Some students are reluctant to write at first and benefit from practice sharing thoughts with a partner and hearing that partner put thoughts into words.Reluctant students get to "practice" in a small setting with a partner before speaking to the whole class. These students can also choose to share their thoughts, their partner's thoughts, or a combination of the two.
53What is Critical Writing? Purposeful and intentional writingPlan the writing prompts or stems during the planning processContent writing based on objectives (SE’s)Should occur in content areaThe writing solidifies the learning for studentsWhy?Makes the learning real. (Solidifies the learning)A tool they need to retain and use the information.Plan the writing prompts or stems.Build it in to the lesson plan at beginning and at the end.Too important not to grade.
54Prior Knowledge Survey A questionnaire that determines prior knowledge about a subject or concept.This helps teacher find a starting point.A short, simple questionnaire that determines what students already know about a subject or concept. This information helps the faculty member select the appropriate starting place or level of instruction. Useful at the beginning of a course, a unit, or an important new topic.
55Concept mapsThese are drawings or diagrams showing the mental connections students make between certain concepts. If students are asked to draw concept maps at the beginning and end of the course, the maps may illustrate whether students gained a more sophisticated understanding of the issues surrounding a particular concept. An example would be Thinking Maps.
56Thinking MapsThinking Maps can be used across all subject matter. They are based on thorough and well-accepted academic study and brain research, the eight Thinking Map tools correspond with eight fundamental thinking processes.Benefits: Students learn more effectively and more efficientlyObjectives are covered in less time with greater retentionThought processes are represented similarly throughout the curriculaSchools also promote integrated thinking and interdisciplinary learningTeachers can easily gauge student knowledge prior to a specific lessonStudent performance can be tracked accurately over timeStudents gain effective tools to use across their academic careers
57Minute PaperStudents write short written responses to one or two questions provided by the teacher regarding the learning.Short, written responses from students at the end of class in response to one or two questions, such as: "What was the most important thing you learned during this class?" or "What important question remains unanswered for you?"
58Minute paper activityHow do you determine what your critical writing prompts you are going to use?When should you do this?You have 1 minute to answer the questions.
59Clock Buddy activityShare your 1 minute paper with your 3 o’clock buddy.
60Muddiest pointStudents write down the most confusing or least clear part of what they just heard or saw.Teacher collects responses which provides immediate feedback on student understanding of presented materialWell suited to large, lower-division classes, the Muddiest Point involves asking students to write down the most confusing or least clear part of what they just heard (lecture) or saw (video). These responses are collected by the professor and provide immediate feedback on student understanding of presented material.
61Pro and Con GridStudents search for at least two sides to the issue in questionWorks well in:Social StudiesLanguage ArtsThis exercise forces students to go beyond their initial reactions and to search for at least two sides to the issue in question. This assessment works well in humanities, social sciences, or public policy courses where questions of value are being examined
62Reflective Journals Have you wondered about ________...? Let me tell you about_______... Have you ever wondered why...? I like to ________ for many reasons. I know how to _________. First... I think _____ was ________ for many reasons. I just learned facts about... Let me tell you about... It's fun to ________. First you... Many changes happen to __________ …At the end of a lesson, students can write in their journals or logs about what they learned and what questions they have. Or ask them to write about a particular subject. For example in math you could have them write about -"what I know about multiplication so far," or "what happens to the sums and products when adding even and odd numbers." When solving a problem, encourage students to record how they reasoned.When children write in journals, they examine, express, and keep track of their reasoning, which is especially useful when ideas are too complex to keep in their heads. By reading their journals, you can evaluate their progress and recognize their strengths and needs.
63Activity: “Don’t break the bank” An administrator has asked you to explain the educational benefits of critical writing. Compose a response to their inquiry.Each word you write will cost .10¢You must spend between $2.70 and $3.00.Teachers have to encourage those who are reluctant to write by incorporating strategies designed to meet the needs of all learners. Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences provides some insight into the various learning styles and ideas to encourage all students to write critically.Activity:Don’t break the bankHoward Gardner: multiple intelligencesParticipants do this activity and share with small group-follow up with someone being chosen to share.
64Clock Buddy ActivityShare your Break the Bank writing with your 6 o’clock buddy.
65Review Objective To become familiar with the components of the Fundamental 5 and to discoverthe advantages of implementingstrategies designed to reinforce learning.
66Review productCreate a note taking guide where you will collect and synthesize strategies that can be used to enhance learning and incorporate Fundamental 5 components in the classroom.
67Critical Writing Activity List the strategies that you will implement in your classroom.Which strategy do you think will be the hardest to implement? Why?Which strategy do you think will be the easiest to implement? Why?
68Clock Buddy ActivityShare your Critical Writing Activity with your 9 o’clock buddy.