2Section 16.1: Motivation What is Motivation? What Motivates People? Integrating the Approaches to Motivation
3What You’ll Learn The meaning of motivation. The various theories of motivation.How expectations affect motivation.How managers use positive and negative reinforcement to motivate employees.How managers use the theories of motivation.
4Why It’s ImportantTo be able to motivate the people who work for them, managers need to recognize what drives individuals’ behavior.
5Bell RingerWrite a brief response to the question, “What motivates you to do your homework?”Will not accept if not handed in in 15 minutes today.Please Include Name-Date-Period-Title of Assignment- Question Written out.
7What is Motivation?Lori Ayeung, the manager of a four person product team, gets to work at 7:30 every morning. When her team is up against a deadline, she stays late. She also has been known to spend weekends at the office.Carlos Lomaz, a manager at the same company, often shows up late for work. He takes little pride in his work and does not seem to understand the importance of completing tasks on time. Carlos’ teammates find it frustrating to work with him because of his obvious disinterest.
8What is Motivation?What explains the difference between the behavior of these two managers? It lies in motivation, or the factors that give people a reason to act. Motivation is concerned with three sets of issues:What makes people actWhy people try to achieve particular goalsWhat makes individuals stick with their goals
9Bell RingerSuccessful athletes understand the importance of motivation. What do you think motivates this baseball team?
10What Motivates People?Researchers have studied how people perceive their needs, set their goals or accept those set for them and take action. They have come up with various theories about what motivates people.
11Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs One theory of motivation is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. As you learned in Chapter 2, according to Maslow, most people seek to meet lower-level needs. A person will fulfill the need for shelter before that of personal satisfaction, for example.
12Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Managers apply Maslow’s principles by recognizing that employees seek to meet some needs before others. They should ensure that the physical working conditions are adequate before concerning themselves with creating interesting and satisfying jobs.
13Bell Ringer # 3What basic needs does a construction worker need to fulfill before he will want to meet higher level needs?
15Georgia Performance Standards Business Essentials Leadership and teamworkBCS-BE-4: The student participates in a variety of activities that demonstrate the importance of leadership within a business endeavor.
16Key Terms DefinedMotivation-the factors that give people a reason to act.Positive Reinforcement-involves rewarding people who engage in behavior that the manager wishes to encourage.Negative Reinforcement-involves punishing or reprimanding people who engage in behavior that the manager hopes to discourage.
17All About Attitude Don’t Just Do Your Job! In today’s workplace, simply showing up isn’t good enough. Floating by and doing the minimum amount of work expected is a thing of the past. Challenge yourself to improve constantly upon your abilities. Your boss, co-workers and customers will all appreciate your effort!
18McClelland’s Achievement Power-Affiliation Approach David C. McClelland developed a third approach to motivation. According to McClelland, people are motivated by three needs:The need for achievement, or the desire to accomplish something or to do something newThe need for power, or the desire to influence people and eventsThe need for affiliation, or the desire to have close relations with other people.
19McClelland’s Achievement Power-Affiliation Approach Everyone aspires to fulfill all these needs to some degree. However, some people have stronger needs than others. To be effective, according to McClelland, managers must identify a person’s strongest need and seek to meet that need.Carmen Sanchez is the manager of the marketing department a large pharmaceutical company. Carmen works hard to identify what motivates each of her employees. She has noticed that one employee, Winston Brown, has a very strong need for affiliation. Last week, Carmen was asked to assign a member of her staff to a company-wide committee. Carmen chose Winston for the job because she recognized his appreciation for working with others. She believes that Winston’s need to work with people will motivate him to work hard on the committee.
20McClelland’s Achievement Power-Affiliation Approach Sheila Fagan, who also works on Carmen’s staff, is not as people-oriented as Winston is. She has a much stronger need to achieve, however. Recognizing Sheila’s need, Carmen assigns her tasks that will give her a strong sense of accomplishment. Last week, for example, Carmen asked Sheila to take charge of the annual report the marketing department prepares for senior management. She knows that Sheila’s need to achieve will motivate her to prepare a well-written report.
21Expectancy TheoryA fourth theory of motivation is the expectancy approach. According to this theory, motivation depends on employees’ beliefs about how effort and performance affect outcomes. If employees believe that extra effort will result in better performance, they are likely to be motivated to work. If they believe that regardless of hard work they are unlikely to succeed, they are not likely to be highly motivated.
22Expectancy TheoryRemy was accidentally placed into French IV, even though the language he has studied for two years is Spanish. He is not motivated to stud very hard for this class because he assumes his studying would make no difference. If instead he were placed in French I, he would probably study very hard, He would recognize that this class is not beyond his level and that his hard work would help him achieve a high grade.
23Expectancy TheoryManagers try to assume that employees see a relationship between effort and performance by placing people in jobs they are able to perform. They avoid hiring people who are not up to the job, and they assign tasks that people will be able to complete.Another important aspect of expectancy theory if the belief that improving performance will lead to rewards, such as a raise or extra vacation days. Employees who believe their work will be rewarded are more likely to work harder than employees who do not see this connection. Many Wall Street companies, for example, pay large end-of-the-year bonuses to employees who perform well. The knowledge that working hard will result in a large bonus motivates many people on Wall Street to work very hard.
24Bell RingerWhat can a manager do to make his staff more motivated?
25Bell RingersDog Trainers use both positive and negative reinforcement of behavior to train dogs. Which type of reinforcement do many managers consider more effective?
26Reinforcement TheoryReinforcement theory, or operant conditioning, is the idea that punishing or rewarding people will affect their future behavior. Parents apply this theory when they reward children for being good or discipline them for misbehavior.
27Reinforcement TheoryReinforcement theory uses two kinds of reinforcement-positive and negative. Positive reinforcement involves rewarding people who engage in behavior that the manager wishes to encourage. Negative reinforcement involves punishing or reprimanding people who engage in behavior that the manager hopes to discourage.
28Reinforcement TheoryManagers use positive reinforcement when they praise their employees for work well done, give them a raise, or offer extra vacation days. Employees who receive this kind of reinforcement are likely to be motivated to behave in the same way again.Managers use negative reinforcement by reprimanding their employees or not giving them raises. Employees who receive this kind of reinforcement may be motivated not to engage in the behavior again.
29StorytellersLeaders often use different tactics to motivate others. The use of stories to communicate ideas is one of them. A parable or symbolism can help bring a difficult situation into a clearer picture of what needs to be accomplished. Shed new light on a subject by telling a story that your audience can relate to.
30Tips from Robert HalfMoney is not all a company can offer. Some companies offer benefits such as advancement opportunities, stocks options, tuition reimbursement, training, telecommuting, flex-time and child care. Employees who feel valued work harder.
31Bell Ringer Expectancy Theory Bond Traders are motivated to work hard because they receive hefty year-end bonuses if they do well. According to expectancy theory, what other factor affects motivation?
32Quiz Facts and Idea Review Name three theories of motivation and briefly describe each.According to Herzberg, what kinds of factors account for job satisfaction?According to McClelland, what are the three main forces that motivate people?Give one example of positive reinforcement and one example of negative reinforcement.
33Chapter 16.2 Power, Authority, and Leadership What You’ll LearnThe difference between power, authority, and leadershipThree types of leadership styleLeadership skills managers need to master.
34Why It’s ImportantGood managers need to be effective leaders to help employees meet organizational objectives.
36Bell RingerList five characteristics you think make a good leader.
37Distinguishing Between Power and Authority The production supervisor John Quiggin rushes onto the factory floor, barking out orders to his employees. Malcolm Jefferson, the warehouse supervisor, quietly gives instructions to the people he manages. Both men are using their power, or the ability they have to make other people act in certain ways. However, each has a different style of using power.
38Distinguishing Between Power and Authority Managers derive power from various sources. An important source of power is that managers determine their subordinates’ incomes. This kind of power is known as reward power.There are other important sources of power. Bill Gates, chairman and co-founder of Microsoft, is powerful not only because he has the power to fire his employees, but also because he is a well respected computer software expert. This kind of power is known as expert power. If Bill Gates was not respected as an expert in his field, his power would be much more limited.
39AuthorityAuthority is the right to issue directives and expend resources. Power and authority often are related. Sometimes, however, people with power have no actual authority. An Advisor to the President of the United States, for example, may have no authority to make decisions. If the person has influence over the President, however, he or she may have significant power.
40What is Leadership?Leadership is the ability to influence people. Some people seem to be born natural leaders. Others are happy following their lead. However, leadership skills can be learned. Understanding what makes a good leader can make any manager stronger.
41What is Leadership?Leaders use their power to guide other people’s behavior. To be effective, leaders must have a vision for the future, develop strategies for achieving that vision, and motivate employees to implement them. They also must develop a leadership style.
43Framework for Classifying Leadership Studies Leadership studies can be classified to by whether they take a universal or contingent approach. The universal approach assumes there is one way to lead, regardless of the circumstances. The contingent approach assumes that the best approach to leadership depends on the situation. These studies also can be classified by a focus on traits or behaviors. Traits are characteristics the leader possesses. Behaviors refer to what the leader does. The most important studies we will examine are classified further in this chapter.
44Trait TheoryEarly research focused on what a leader was like, rather than what a leader did. This stress on personal traits is called trait theory. Personality trait (originality, persistence, and enthusiasm), social traits (tact, patience, and sympathy), and even physical characteristics (height and weight) are examined to determine good leadership.
45Trait TheoryBased on Trait Theory, those qualities most often associated with excellent leaders include:LoyaltyCourageStaminaEmpathyDecisivenessTimingCompetivenessSelf-confidenceAccountabilityCharisma
46Styles of LeadershipResearchers have identified three basic styles of leadership. They include autocratic leadership, laissez-faire leadership, and democratic leadership.
47Autocratic Leadership Autocratic leaders are leaders who do not listen to other people but make all decisions themselves. These leaders make most decisions alone because they have little trust in the people they work with.Few people enjoy working for an autocratic leader. There is little room for initiative. Autocratic leaders are unlikely to acknowledge their subordinates’ work or give them credit for their achievements. While autocratic leaders can be effective when they are present, performance and productivity are likely to decline when the leader is away from the work site.
48Autocratic Leadership A generation ago, most managers were autocratic leaders who simply told their subordinates what to do. Although some autocratic managers still exist today, the trend has been toward different leadership styles.
49Laissez-Faire Leadership Laissez-Faire means hands off. Laissez-Faire leaders are leaders who choose not to lead. This situation can occur when someone is thrust unexpectedly, or unwillingly, into a leadership position. These leaders often lack confidence in their leadership abilities and allow other people in the group to make decisions. They fail to set goals for the group and provide no real leadership.
50Democratic Leadership Democratic leaders are often the best kind of leaders. This kind of leader listens to other people’s opinions and encourages the exchange of ideas. Democratic leadership helps develop a feeling of responsibility among group members.When democratic leaders make a decision, they will explain the reasoning behind their actions. This creates a group that feels empowered. Democratic leadership usually results in high productivity, strong morale, and good teamwork.
51Bell RingerImagine three different classrooms, one lead by an autocratic teacher, one a laissez-faire teacher, and the other a democratic teacher, and the other a democratic teacher. Which classroom would you prefer? Why?
52Fiedler’s Contingency Studies of Leadership Early leadership studies attempted to identify universal principles that could be applied to any situation. However, in performing these studies, researchers began realizing the difficulty of generalizing, for example between a military unit and a PTA committee. Even within he business environment alone, leadership practices appropriate to the production floor might not work in the executive suite.
53Contingency ApproachLater studies looked at leadership styles specific to particular situations. This is called he contingency approach. Fred Fiedler conducted one of the first contingency studies. He studied the match between a leader’s personality and the situation. Fiedler defined two basic leadership traits:Task motivated leaders gain satisfaction from the performance of a task.Relationship-motivated leaders gain satisfaction from interpersonal relationships.
54Path Goal Theory of Leadership Path-goal theory addresses the relationship between a leader’s behavior and subordinates’ performance and job satisfaction. Leader behavior affects employees’ perception of their work environment. This model categories leaders into four basic types. One of these types is the autocratic style discussed earlier in this chapter.
55Path Goal Theory of Leadership Here are the four basic types of Path Goal Theory of Leadership: Role Classification-leaders let group members know what is expected of them, establish the methods o use, coordinate work within the group, and maintain standards of performance. Such clarification is helpful to employees engaged in unstructured tasks.
56Path Goal Theory of Leadership Supportive Leaders-create a pleasant work environment and are approachable. This is satisfying to those working on highly structured tasks, as friendliness can lighten an oppressive routine.
57Path Goal Theory of Leadership Participative Leaders-consult with subordinates in the decision-making process. These discussions improve the performance of employees working on ambiguous tasks.
58Path Goal Theory of Leadership Autocratic Leaders-issue orders that subordinates are not expected to question. This leadership style hurts job performance and satisfaction in most situations.
59Developing Good Leadership Skills With so many different theories on leadership, it may be difficult to find the one that works for you. Regardless of which theory you choose, here are many good leadership skills that are effective in most situations. To become effective leaders, managers need to master the following set of skills.
60Developing Good Leadership Skills PlanBecome a TeacherDelegateEncourage independent thinkingBuild a TeamSet an ExampleShare credit with subordinates.
61Developing Good leadership Skills With dynamic forces at work in the marketplace, managers and employees must continually adapt to new situations. The need to improve performance under conditions of constant change challenges managers continually to improve their motivation and leadership skills.
62Business Plan Outline Plan Outline 1.0 Executive Summary 2.0 Company SummaryCompany OwnershipStart-up SummaryCompany Locations and Facilities3.0 Products and Services4.0 Market Analysis Summary5.0 Strategy and Implementation Summary6.0 Management Summary7.0 Financial PlanAppendix
63Chapter 16 Quiz Answers: 1. (1) Maslow's hierarchy of needs; (2) Herzberg's motivation-maintenance model; (3) McClelland's achievement-power-affiliation approach; (4) Expectancy theory; or (5) reinforcement theory. 2. Herzberg concluded that job content factors (the opportunity for promotion and the chance to grow) and hygiene factors (pay, benefits, and working conditions) account for job satisfaction. 3. McClelland said that the three motivating forces are the need for achievement, the need for power, and the need for affiliation. 4.Give example of positive reinforcement and an example of negative reinforcement. Your own words.
64Classroom Rules It’s a New Day….. No Cursing in ClassThere will be assigned seatingNo Talking in classAbsolutely no cell phones visible in classNo Ipods on or Earphones in ear during classNo game playing in classNo walking around classroomNo leaving class without permissionNo arguing back at teacher –Automatic Write-upIf you talk about the teacher you will be written upAll these rules are enforceable on 1 warning then a write-up.
65Vocabulary Quiz Define the Following Terms PowerLeadershipUniversal ApproachContingent Approach