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Part of the Local Ecosystems Module Spotlight Biology Preliminary Text Chapter 4 Authors: D. Heffernan, J. Bastina, B. Grieve, K. Humphreys, A. Sartor.

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Presentation on theme: "Part of the Local Ecosystems Module Spotlight Biology Preliminary Text Chapter 4 Authors: D. Heffernan, J. Bastina, B. Grieve, K. Humphreys, A. Sartor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part of the Local Ecosystems Module Spotlight Biology Preliminary Text Chapter 4 Authors: D. Heffernan, J. Bastina, B. Grieve, K. Humphreys, A. Sartor Science Press 2002 Ecosystems Topic 1 Continued: Using Energy

2 Carnivores Carnivores such as sharks and dingoes eat other animals that have stored energy in the form of fats, oils and proteins. Animals that eat herbivores are called secondary consumers and animals that eat other carnivores are called tertiary consumers australiangeographic.com.au

3 Carnivores Many meat eaters expend more energy than grazers in actually obtaining their food. For example a lion stalking and running down a zebra uses heaps of energy. getfitstayingfit.com

4 Carnivores Other carnivores, like trap door spiders, hide and wait to ambush their prey. Therefore they may spend majority of their time waiting for a meal to wander by. flickr.com

5 Carnivores Meat is easily digested and this is reflected in the anatomy and behaviour of carnivores. Most carnivores hardly bother to even chew their food. Their razer sharp teeth quickly chop food into pieces small enough to be swallowed. baynature.org

6 Carnivores The chunks of meat contain heaps of energy which is obtained in a much shorter digestive tract than herbivores. Many meat eaters only need to feed occasionally, some like crocodiles spend much of their time sleeping. inquisitr.com

7 Omnivores Omnivores like us and several other primates, eat plant and animal material. Some vary their diets according to the seasonal availability of preferred foods while others eat meat and vegetable matter year around. He teeth and digestive systems of omnivores combine the characteristics of carnivores and herbivores. theveganpost.com

8 Decomposers Saprophytes obtain their energy by breaking down (decomposing), the complex molecules in the decaying tissues of plants and animals. These include fungi and bacteria. earth-cards.com

9 Decomposers These organisms of decay are vital to the health of all ecosystems because they play a crucial role in the cycling of important nutrients. Without these heterotrophs, the bodies of dead animals would litter the landscape and the nutrients within them would be lost to the ecosystem. geekapolis.fooyoh.com

10 Other Feeding Techniques Many feeding techniques do not fit into herbivores, carnivores and or decomposers. Some herbivores and carnivores are liquid feeders that only survive on liquids extracted from their prey. eyeswideblind.com

11 Other Feeding Techniques Aphids and other sucking insects pierce plant stems and suck out sugary sap. Mosquitoes attack animals the same way and drink the blood of birds and mammals. Spiders inject venom that liquefies its prey and then suck with liquid up through a hollow tube. mossseo.wordpress.com

12 Other Feeding Techniques Another group is made up of the waste-feeders such as dung beetles. These organisms feed on the waste or dung of large animals. ferrellgummit.wordpress.com

13 Other Feeding Techniques Some of these animals live primarily on detritus, a combination of bits of decaying organisms and dung containing partially digested food. On land, detritus mixes with soil particles and is eaten by earthworms and some soil-dwelling insects. publicdomainpictures.net

14 Other Feeding Techniques Worms swallow large amounts of soil and digest the detritus particles passing through their guts. A large number of marine animals either filter floating detritus from the water or pick it up off the bottom after it settles. kids.britannica.com

15 Other Feeding Techniques Aquatic environments offer several food sources not found in terrestrial environments. In addition to floating detritus, water carries many dissolved organic molecules. Both fresh and salt water harbour tiny floating or swimming plants called phytoplankton (phyto: plant, plankton: drifter) and animals called zooplankton (zoo: animal). gtresearchnews.gatech.edu

16 Other Feeding Techniques To make use of such foods, many marine species are filter feeders, with mouth parts, gills and specially designed limbs that filter the water to obtain food from around them. Video messersmith.name

17 Homework 1. Explain why decomposers are so vital to ecosystems 2. If you were an earthworm, what would be on the menu? Explain. 3. Compare phytoplankton with zooplankton 4. Some whales use baleen plates to sift krill from ocean water. Classify the type of feeding used by these whales. 5. Suppose that all phytoplankton die in an epidemic. Predict what effect it would have on the environment. 6. Classify the following as herbivores, carnivores or omnivores: flying fox, fox, ring-tailed possum, wombat, bee, wasp, leech, mosquito.


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