Presentation on theme: "Photosynthesis and Cellular respiration How are plants and humans similar? 04-03-2013."— Presentation transcript:
Photosynthesis and Cellular respiration How are plants and humans similar?
Topic of this Unit Topic: photosynthesis and cellular respiration
Topic of today Topic: Energy Learning goals: – After todays lesson you will be able to: Describe what is energy? List the different types of energy Explain in what ways energy can be converted
Energy What is energy? – It has the capacity to cause change Energy in everyday life – Examples...?
Energy Energy in everyday life (examples) – you expend energy to turn the pages of this book – your cells expend energy in transporting certain substances across membranes Energy exists in various forms, and the work of life depends on the ability of cells to transform energy from one form to another.
Forms of energy Free energy Bound energy Free energy forms: – Warmth – Movement (Kinetic energy) – Light – Electricity – Sound Bound or fixed energy (potential energy) can be seen as stored energy.
Hydroelectricity Glen Canyon Dam
Hydroelectricity Around the dam the water is highly elevated, there is a lot of potential energy Water falls down from high altitude potential energy is released or becomes free as kinetic energy (movement) The falling water brings a turbine in motion, which generates electricity Motion energy is transformed in electric energy
Battery This electric energy can be used to charge a battery So this kinetic electric energy can be transformed again in fixed/bound energy in a battery The energy stored in the battery can later be released as either light, motion, warmth, sound, etc.
How is energy converted from one form to another? What energy is converted into another type of energy here? 2.What type of energy has become more now that he is elevated above the water? 3.What energy is converted into another type of energy here? 4.What type of energy has become less now that he is in the water instead of on the platform?
Assignment: Fill in the gaps Use the following words: chemical, kinetic (2x), potential (2x) The young woman climbing the ladder to the diving platform is releasing _______ energy from the food she ate for lunch and using some of that energy to perform the work of climbing. The _______ energy of muscle movement is thus being transformed into _______ energy due to her increasing height above the water. The young man diving is converting his _______ energy to _______ energy, which is then transferred to the water as he enters it. (A small amount of energy is lost as heat due to friction.)
Answer The young woman climbing the ladder to the diving platform is releasing chemical energy from the food she ate for lunch and using some of that energy to perform the work of climbing. The kinetic energy of muscle movement is thus being transformed into potential energy due to her increasing height above the water. The young man diving is converting his potential energy to kinetic energy, which is then transferred to the water as he enters it. A small amount of energy is lost as heat due to friction.
Chemical energy Free energy can also be converted into chemical energy Complex molecules, such as glucose, are high in chemical energy. Catabolic reaction – some bonds are broken and others formed, releasing energy and resulting in lower-energy breakdown products. Example car engine: This transformation also occurs, in the engine of a car when the hydrocarbons of gasoline react explosively with oxygen, releasing the energy that pushes the pistons and producing exhaust.
Chemical Energy Lunch at WIS Similar reaction in biological systems Food molecules with oxygen provides chemical energy Producing carbon dioxide and water as waste products Biochemical pathways enable cells to release chemical energy from food molecules and use the energy to power life processes.
Assignment During summer apples grow bigger and bigger. Around the beginning of autumn the apple falls from the tree. When you find this apple in the grass, you can of course eat this nice and tasty apple. Think-pair-share: 1.Describe, first on your own, the forms of energy found in an apple as it grows on a tree, then falls, then is digested by someone who eats it. 2.Discuss and compair your answer with your neighbour. 3.Share your answer with the rest of the class.
Answer The apple has potential energy in its position hanging on the tree, and the sugars and other nutrients it contains have chemical energy. The apple has kinetic energy as it falls from the tree to the ground. Finally, when you eat the apple and it is digested and its molecules broken down, some of the chemical energy is used to do work, and the rest is lost as thermal energy.
Assimilation and Dissimilation In cells molecules are constantly converted into other molecules. The total of these chemical processes = Metabolism Part of these metabolism reactions consists of building bigger molecules from smaller molecules In bigger molecules atoms are held together by energy-rich bonds Free energy is needed to create these bonds During the breakdown of an organic molecule this energy from this bond is again released
Assimilation The construction of bigger molecules out of smaller molecules Organic compounds are formed by the process of assimilation, which give rise to our cells – Photosynthesis
Dissimilation The breakdown of organic compounds into smaller molecules Energy released by the process of dissimilation is used for processes in the cell – Combustion (= dissimilation with oxygen)
Autotrophic vs. Heterotrophic Autotrophic: – Able to construct organic compounds from inorganic compounds, like CO 2 and H 2 O carbon assimilation Needed: – Free energy (plants use sunlight)
Autotrophic vs. Heterotrophic Heterotrophic: – NOT able to construct organic compounds from inorganic compounds Needed: – Fixed or bound energy Great portion of organic compounds taken in by eating food are broken down into smaller organic molecules (digestion) These organic molecules can be dissimilated into even smaller compounds or used to build other organic compounds
The cell’s energysource Three main kinds of cell’s work: 1.Chemical work the pushing of reactions that would not occur spontaneously, such as the synthesis of polymers from monomers 2.Transport work the pumping of substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement 3.Mechanical work the beating of cilia, the contraction of muscle cells, and the movement of chromosomes during cellular reproduction
ATP Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – Molecule to transfer chemical energy from one compound to another
ADP When third phosphate group is split off by hydrolysis ADP (adenosine diphosphate) + energy is formed
ATP cycle During dissimilation energy is released This energy can be used to bind a phosphate group to ADP again making ATP phosphorylation
Recapping What have we learned so far?
Plant and Animal Cells What are the differences between plant and animal cells?
Assignment Animal and Plant Cells Wroclaw University of Science Cell Art Competition
Plant cells and Animal Cells Cell structure/organelleFunctionPresent in Animal cell? Present in Plant cell? Plasma membrane Nucleus Golgi apparatus Chloroplast Cell wall Mitochondrion Cytoplasm Ribosome Vacuole Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Rough ER and Smooth ER) Plasmodesmata In plant cells but not in animal cells: