Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Unit Test Review. What Makes Us Fat Theory 1: Calories In Calories Out Dr. George Bray: People gain weight when they eat more calories then."— Presentation transcript:
Nutrition Unit Test Review
What Makes Us Fat Theory 1: Calories In Calories Out Dr. George Bray: People gain weight when they eat more calories then they burn. Caloric surplus = Weight gain calories = +1 pound To lose 1 pound, you need to expend 3500 more calories than you consume. Consume 2,000 calories per day. Expend 2,500 calories per day. Caloric deficit: x 7 days = -3,500 = -1 pound Caloric deficit = Weight loss calories = -1 pound
What Makes Us Fat Theory 2: It’s sugar, stupid! Gary Taubes Eating too much sugar stimulates the the hormone insulin. Increased insulin triggers hunger and causes calories not immediately burned to be stored as fat. Carbohydrates Glucose (sugar) Insulin Fat accumulation.
Protein Functions Tissue building and repair (muscle building). Cell functioning Enzymes are proteins that facilitate biochemical reactions. Often referred to as catalysts. Body functioning Hormones (insulin, oxytocin, somatotropin) Immune function (antibodies) Structural (keratin, collagen, elastin) Energy source
How much protein do you need to build muscle? Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) 0.36 grams per pound of bodyweight to avoid deficiency. National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) grams per pound of bodyweight for active people who engage in strength and endurance training Popular belief from fitness community 1 gram per pound of bodyweight 2 grams per pound of bodyweight for weightlifters From our article on Monday 0.5 grams per pound of bodyweight
Incomplete Proteins Lacks one or more essential amino acids By combining foods from two or more incomplete proteins, a complete protein can be made. Usually from plant- derived foods Grains Nuts Beans Seeds Peas Photos courtesy of the USDA
Complementing Proteins Combination Legumes and grains Beans and rice Lentil soup with whole grain bread Falafel and hummus on whole-wheat pita Nuts and grains Peanut butter on whole grain bread (plus banana) Dairy with seeds Yogurt mixed with flax seeds
Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates are more readily broken down to form glucose, which is then absorbed by the blood, causing a rise in blood sugar levels. However, complex carbohydrates take a longer time to get converted to glucose, and hence, do not cause a sudden rise in blood sugar levels. This is the reason why one is advised to eat more of complex carbohydrates.
Too Much Simple Carbohydrates If we consume too much of simple carbohydrates, then the excess glucose formed is either converted to glycogen and stored in the liver, or gets converted to fat. This is the reason too much fast food, processed foods, and desserts are bad for you. You should always go for good carbs if you wish to stay healthy and fit.
List of Foods Rich in Complex Carbohydrates Whole-grain products: Brown rice, whole-grain pasta, whole-wheat bread, whole oats, steel cut oatmeal, whole grain barley. Fruits and Vegetables: Yams, sweet potato, kale, spinach, asparagus, apple, zucchini, potato, root vegetables, any fruits. Legumes, nuts, and seeds: Peas, any beans, lentils, peanuts, almonds, cashews, flax seeds, sunflower seeds, walnuts.
Fats “Eating a low-fat diet is the key to losing weight and preventing heart disease.” – Nutritionist and doctors have said for decades. It is a low-fat myth! It’s not the amount of fat you eat, it’s the types of fat you eat that really matter. Bad fats increase bad cholesterol and your risk of heart diseases, while good fats protect your heart and support overall health. Good fats such as omega-3 fats are essential to to physical and emotional health!
Pathway to Heart Disease Bad Fats (Saturated and Trans) Bad Cholesterol (LDL) Plague clogging arteries Heart Disease
Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Good = HDL Protect against heart disease and stroke Bad = LDL Clog arteries What influence your HDL and LDL? Dietary cholesterol (eggs) has modest impact. Biggest influence is type of fats your eat. Monounsaturated fats (olive oil, avocado) raise HDL and lower LDL. Saturated fats (high-fat meats, cheese, lard) raise LDL. Trans fats (junk food) raise LDL and lower HDL.