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Review ATP is the most important form of energy used by cells (“universal energy currency”) A solute is the material that is dissolved in a solution A.

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Presentation on theme: "Review ATP is the most important form of energy used by cells (“universal energy currency”) A solute is the material that is dissolved in a solution A."— Presentation transcript:

1 Review ATP is the most important form of energy used by cells (“universal energy currency”) A solute is the material that is dissolved in a solution A solvent is the liquid in the solution that dissolves the solute

2 Cell Doctrine All living things are composed of cells
A single cell is the smallest unit that exhibits all of the characteristics of life All cells come only from preexisting cells

3 Two Basic Cell Types Classified by Internal Organization
Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Plasma membrane No nucleus Cytoplasm: fluid within membrane No true organelles (except for ribosomes, cilia, & flagella) Plasma membrane Nucleus: information center Cytoplasm: fluid within membrane Organelles: structures with specialized functions All human cells are eukaryotic

4 a) A eukaryotic animal cell has a large
Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Organelles Nucleus a) A eukaryotic animal cell has a large nucleus and numerous small organelles. The cytoplasm is enclosed by a flexible plasma membrane. Figure 3.1a

5 b) Prokaryotic cells such as this bacterium have a
Plasma membrane Cell wall b) Prokaryotic cells such as this bacterium have a rigid cell wall surrounding the plasma membrane. The genetic material is not surrounded by a membrane, and there are no organelles in the cell. The elongated bacterium in the center of the photo is about to divide in two, as its genetic material is concentrated at both ends of the cell. Figure 3.1b

6 Cell Structure Reflects Cell Function
Though eukaryotic cells are remarkably similar, there are structural differences Examples: Muscle cells Contain numerous organelles providing energy needed for muscle contraction Nerve cells Long and thin to carry impulses over distance Small size is efficient

7 A portion of several muscle cells of the heart (X1,500).
Figure 3.2a

8 b) Nerve cells of the central nervous system (X 830).
Figure 3.2b

9 c) Cells lining a tubule of a kidney (X 250).
Figure 3.2c

10 Cells Remain Small to Stay Efficient
Small cells have a higher surface:volume ratio High surface:volume ratio promotes efficiency in Acquisition of nutrients Disposal of wastes

11 One large cell. Figure 3.4a

12 b) Eight small cells. Figure 3.4b

13 Cell with microvilli on one surface. Figure 3.4c

14 Plasma Membrane Surrounds the Cell
Separates a cell from its environment Selectively permeable Permits movement of some substances into and out of the cell, but blocks others Enables communication between environment and cell (an example is insulin, from the pancreas, binding to a part of a liver cell membrane, “telling” it to take up more glucose)

15 A Plasma Membrane Surrounds the Cell
Plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer Phospholipids: polar head and nonpolar tail Cholesterol: makes membrane a bit more rigid Proteins: provide means of transport through membrane & some are receptor proteins Carbohydrates: recognition patterns for cells and organisms Nonrigid Fluid mosaic

16 Extracellular environment
Receptor protein Channel protein (always open) Gated channel protein (closed position) Carbohydrate groups Cytoskeleton filaments Phospholipid Lipid bilayer Transport protein Glycoprotein Cytoplasm Cholesterol Figure 3.5

17 Membrane Structure

18 Non-polar, small molecules (O2, CO2), & water can pass through the membrane without having to use special channels Polar molecules, larger molecules, & ions require specific channels to pass through the membrane

19 Molecules Cross the Plasma Membrane in Several Ways
Passive transport Cell does not need to expend energy for this Diffusion Osmosis Active transport – cell must expend energy Bulk transport Involves membranous vesicles to move larger substances Endocytosis Exocytosis

20 Passive Transport Moves with the Concentration Gradient
Passive transport is powered by the concentration gradient. In the cell it occurs as Diffusion through lipid layer Diffusion through protein channels Facilitated transport Transport or carrier proteins in the membrane assist in moving molecules across the membrane, down the concentration gradient, without expending energy

21 Higher concentration Lower concentration Diffusion through the lipid layer. Lipid-soluble molecules such as O2 and CO2 diffuse freely through the plasma membrane. Diffusion through channels. Some polar and charged molecules diffuse through protein channels that span the membrane. Water is a typical example. Facilitated transport. Certain molecules bind to a protein, triggering a change in protein shape that transports the molecule across the membrane. Glucose typically enters cells by this method. Figure 3.8

22 Active Transport Active transport moves substances from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration Requires a membrane protein (transporter) Requires ATP or other energy source

23 a) In active transport using ATP, energy
derived from the breakdown of ATP is used to change the shape of the carrier protein. Figure 3.9a 23

24 b) Some carrier proteins use energy
derived from the downhill transport of one molecule to transport another molecule uphill. In this example, the energy to transport the square molecules comes from the facilitated transport of the spearhead molecules. Figure 3.9b 24

25 Passive and Active Transport

26 Endocytosis and Exocytosis Move Materials in Bulk
Used to move larger molecules Endocytosis: brings substances into the cell Exocytosis: expels substances from the cell

27 Extracellular environment
Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Vesicle a) Endocytosis. In endocytosis, material is surrounded by the cell membrane and brought into the cell. Figure 3.10a

28 b) Exocytosis. In exocytosis, a membranous vesicle fuses
with the plasma membrane, expelling its contents outside the cell. Figure 3.10b

29 Endocytosis and Exocytosis

30 Information Transfer Across the Plasma Membrane
Receptor proteins span membrane – required for transmission of information to and from cell Receptor sites (on receptor proteins) – interact specifically with signal molecules A change is triggered within the cell as a result of binding of signal molecule to receptor site Different cell types have different receptor proteins

31 Extracellular environment
Receptor site Substrate Product Cytoplasm Figure 3.11

32 The Sodium–Potassium Pump: Helps Maintains Cell Volume
Sodium–potassium pump expels unwanted ions, keeps needed ones, and maintains cell volume ATP is used to expel 3 sodium ions for every 2 potassium ions brought into the cell Increase in cell volume = increase in water in cytoplasm by decreasing pumping and allowing more sodium inside cell Decrease in cell volume = less water in cytoplasm by increasing pumping and expelling more sodium ions

33 Figure 3.12a 1 2 7 3 6 4 5 Extracelluar fluid Sodium ions bind to
binding sites accessible only from the cytoplasm. 2 Binding of three cytoplasmic Na+ to the sodium-potassium pump stimulates the breakdown of ATP. 7 Most of the potassium diffuses out of the cell, but sodium diffuses in only very slowly 3 Energy released by ATP causes the protein to change its shape, expelling the sodium ions. Cytoplasm 6 Potassium is transported into the cell, and the sodium binding sites become exposed again. 4 The loss of sodium exposes two binding sites for potassium. 5 Potassium binding triggers another change of shape. a) The cell membrane contains Na+ - K+ pumps, and also channels that permit the rapid outward diffusion of K+ but only a slow inward diffusion of Na+. Figure 3.12a

34 Key: Active transport of Na+ Sodium-potassium pump Diffusion of K+ Diffusion of Na+ Diffusion of H2O In the steady-state, the rate of outward sodium transport equals the rate of inward diffusion. When the rate of outward sodium transport exceeds inward diffusion, water diffuses out and the cell shrinks. When the rate of outward sodium transport is less than the rate of inward diffusion, water diffuses in and the cell swells b) The rate of transport by the Na+ - K+ pumps determines cell volume. Figure 3.12b

35 Isotonic Extracellular Fluid Maintains Cell Volume
Tonicity: relative concentration of solutes in two fluids Isotonic Extracellular and intracellular ionic concentrations are equal Cells maintain a normal volume in isotonic extracellular fluids Regulatory mechanisms maintain extracellular fluid that is isotonic with intracellular fluid

36 Isotonic Extracellular Fluid Maintains Cell Volume
Variations in tonicity Hypertonic Extracellular ionic concentration higher than intracellular Water will diffuse out of cell Cell will shrink and die Hypotonic Extracellular ionic concentration lower than intracellular Water will diffuse into cell Cell may swell and burst

37 a) Water movement into and out of human red blood
Isotonic Hypertonic Hypotonic 9 grams of salt in 1 liter of solution 18 grams of salt in 1 liter of solution Pure water a) Water movement into and out of human red blood cells placed in isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutions. The amount of water movement is indicated by the sizes of the arrows. Figure 3.13a

38 b) Scanning of electron micrographs of red blood cells
placed in similar solutions. Figure 3.13b

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