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Chapter 3 Groups in the Organization. 1. Foundations of Group Behavior (1) differentiate between formal and informal groups (1) differentiate between.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Groups in the Organization. 1. Foundations of Group Behavior (1) differentiate between formal and informal groups (1) differentiate between."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Groups in the Organization

2 1. Foundations of Group Behavior (1) differentiate between formal and informal groups (1) differentiate between formal and informal groups (2) explain why people join groups (2) explain why people join groups (3) describe how role requirements change in different situations (3) describe how role requirements change in different situations (4) explain the importance of the Hawthorne studies (4) explain the importance of the Hawthorne studies (5) describe the importance of the Asch studies (5) describe the importance of the Asch studies (6) identify the implications of social loafing (6) identify the implications of social loafing (7) outline the benefits and disadvantages of cohesive groups (7) outline the benefits and disadvantages of cohesive groups (8) explain the effect of diversity on group performance (8) explain the effect of diversity on group performance (9) contrast groupthink and groupshift (9) contrast groupthink and groupshift

3 Madness is the exception in individual but the rule in groups. Madness is the exception in individual but the rule in groups. —— Nietzsche —— Nietzsche

4 1.1 defining and classifying groups A group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives. A group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives.

5 Groups can be either formal or informal. Groups can be either formal or informal. By formal groups, we mean defined by the organization ’ s structure, with designated work assignments establishing tasks and work groups. By formal groups, we mean defined by the organization ’ s structure, with designated work assignments establishing tasks and work groups. Informal groups are alliances that are neither structured nor organizationally determined. These groups form naturally as responses to the need for social contact. Informal groups are alliances that are neither structured nor organizationally determined. These groups form naturally as responses to the need for social contact.

6 Command group Command group Task group Task group Interest group Interest group Friendship group Friendship group

7 Why do people join group? Why do people join group? SecuritySecurity StatusStatus Self- esteemSelf- esteem AffiliationAffiliation PowerPower Goal achievementGoal achievement

8 1.2 basic group concepts Roles Roles All the world ’ s a stage, and all the men and women merely players. All the world ’ s a stage, and all the men and women merely players. —— shakespeare —— shakespeare We mean a set of expected behavior patterns that are attributes to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. We mean a set of expected behavior patterns that are attributes to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.

9 Role identity (角色认同) Role identity (角色认同) Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role. Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role. Role perception (角色知觉) Role perception (角色知觉) An individual ’ s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation. An individual ’ s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation. Role expectation (角色期望) Role expectation (角色期望) How others believe a person should act in s given situation. How others believe a person should act in s given situation. Psychological contractPsychological contract Role conflict (角色冲突) Role conflict (角色冲突) A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations.

10 An experiment: Zimbardo ’ s Prison Experiment An experiment: Zimbardo ’ s Prison Experiment

11 1.2.2 Norms Norms There are acceptable standards of behavior within a group that shared by the group ’ s members. There are acceptable standards of behavior within a group that shared by the group ’ s members. Each group will establish its own set of norms. Each group will establish its own set of norms.

12 The Hawthorne Studies The Hawthorne Studies

13 1.2.3 Conformity (从众) Conformity (从众) Groups can place strong pressure on individual members to change their attitudes and behaviors to conform to the group ’ s standard. Groups can place strong pressure on individual members to change their attitudes and behaviors to conform to the group ’ s standard. Reference groups (参照性群体) Reference groups (参照性群体) the important groups the important groups

14 The Asch Studies The Asch Studies

15 1.2.4 Cohesiveness (凝聚力) Cohesiveness (凝聚力) The degree to which members are attracted to each other and are motivates to stay in the groups. The degree to which members are attracted to each other and are motivates to stay in the groups. Performance- related norms Performance- related norms Relationship of cohesiveness to productivity Relationship of cohesiveness to productivity Exhibit 7-3 Exhibit 7-3 ?

16 1.2.5 Size (规模) Size (规模) Small group —— completing task Small group —— completing task doing something doing something productive with that input productive with that input Large group —— gaining diverse input Large group —— gaining diverse input fact- finding fact- finding

17 Social loafing (社会惰化) Social loafing (社会惰化) is the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. is the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. Max Ringelmann Max Ringelmann Rope- pulling task Rope- pulling task

18 Increases in group size are inversely related to individual performance. Increases in group size are inversely related to individual performance. the dispersion or responsibility the dispersion or responsibility (责任分散) (责任分散) There will be a reduction in efficiency when individuals think that their contribution cannot be measured. There will be a reduction in efficiency when individuals think that their contribution cannot be measured.

19 Social facilitation (社会助长) Social facilitation (社会助长)

20 1.2.6 status (地位) status (地位) Is a prestige grading, position, or rank within a group. Is a prestige grading, position, or rank within a group. Anything can have status value if others in the group see it as status- conferring. Informal status is not necessarily less important that the formal variety.

21 incur Status —— Norms Status —— Norms High-status people also better able to resist conformity pressures than their lower-status peers. High-status people also better able to resist conformity pressures than their lower-status peers. It ’ s also important for group members to believe the status hierarchy is equitable. It ’ s also important for group members to believe the status hierarchy is equitable. Status —— equitable Status —— equitable People expect rewards to be proportion- ate to costs incurred. People expect rewards to be proportion- ate to costs incurred.

22 Heterogeneous individual (异质个体) Heterogeneous groups (异质群体) Status —— culture

23 1.2.7 group decision making group decision making Two heads are better than one. Two heads are better than one. Many decisions in organizations are made by groups, teams, or committees. Many decisions in organizations are made by groups, teams, or committees.

24 (1)the individual vs the group (1)the individual vs the group Individual --- plus Individual --- plus speedspeed clear accountabilityclear accountability consistent valuesconsistent values Group --- plus Group --- plus more complete information and knowledgemore complete information and knowledge increased diversity or viewincreased diversity or view higher quality decisionshigher quality decisions increased acceptance of a solutionincreased acceptance of a solution

25 Effectiveness VS efficiency Effectiveness VS efficiency g a g a Groups Groups more alternatives more alternatives more creative more creative more accurate more accurate produce higher-quality decisions produce higher-quality decisions

26 (2) groupthink and groupshift (2) groupthink and groupshift Groupthink Groupthink Four characteristics Four characteristics ?

27 Five variables Five variables the group ’ s cohesivenessthe group ’ s cohesiveness its leader ’ s behaviorits leader ’ s behavior its insulation from outsidersits insulation from outsiders time pressuretime pressure failure to follow methodical decision- making proceduresfailure to follow methodical decision- making procedures

28 Groupshift (群体偏移) Groupshift (群体偏移) In some case, the group decisions are more cautious than individual decisions. More often, the shift is toward greater risk. In some case, the group decisions are more cautious than individual decisions. More often, the shift is toward greater risk. The group discussion tends to exaggerate the initial position of the group. The group discussion tends to exaggerate the initial position of the group.

29 ? familiarization--bolder and more daringfamiliarization--bolder and more daring diffuses responsibilitydiffuses responsibility

30 1.2.8 Group decision- making technique Group decision- making technique Interacting groups (互动群体) Interacting groups (互动群体) Brainstorming (头脑风暴) Brainstorming (头脑风暴) Nominal group technique (名义小组技 术) Nominal group technique (名义小组技 术) Electronic meetings (电子会议) Electronic meetings (电子会议) Delphi Method (德尔菲法 - 专家调查法) Delphi Method (德尔菲法 - 专家调查法)

31 Implications Implications


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