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© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 1
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 2 Session Agenda Define Fluency Analyze Elements of Prosody Review Recommendations for Fluency Instruction and Instructional Approaches Examine Reader’s Theater Discuss Implementation of Reader’s Theater Participate in Reader’s Theater
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 3 The Five Areas of Beginning Reading Instruction Phonemic Awareness Phonics Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 What is Fluency? 4
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 5 NAEP defines fluency as: the grouping or phrasing of words as revealed through the intonation, stress, and pauses exhibited by readers adherence to author’s syntax expressiveness of oral reading— interjecting a sense of emotion, anticipation, or characterization.
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 6 NAEP's Oral Reading Fluency Scale Reads primarily word-by-word. Occasional two- or three-word phrases may occur, but these are infrequent and/or they do not preserve meaningful syntax. Reads primarily in two-word phrases with some three- or four-word groupings. Some word-by- word reading may be present. Word groupings may seem awkward and unrelated to the larger context of the sentence or passage. Level 1 2
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 7 Reads primarily in three- or four-word phrase groups. Some smaller groupings may be present. However, the majority of phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation is present. Reads primarily in larger, meaningful phrase groups. Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author's syntax is consistent. Some or most of the story is read with expressive interpretation. Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Listening to Children Read Aloud, 15. Washington, DC: Level 3 4
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 8 How would you describe the readers in your class according to the NAEP Scale? What are your current instructional strategies for teaching fluency at each level of the NAEP Scale?
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 9 What Is a Fluent Reader? “ Fluent readers are able to read quickly, effortlessly, and efficiently, with good, meaningful expression. Fluent readers expend very little energy in decoding words. This means the maximum amount of energy can be directed to the task of making sense of the text. (Rasinski, 2003) ”
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 10 Fluent Readers: read in phrases read with expression monitor their comprehension read accurately demonstrate automaticity practice reading attend to punctuation and word choice
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 11 Fluency Instruction Recommendations from Put Reading First Oral reading fluency is the ability to read with accuracy, and with an appropriate rate, expression (pitch/intonation, stress/emphasis, tempo/rate, rhythmic language patterns), and phrasing.
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 12 Fluency is important because it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Repeated and monitored oral reading improves reading fluency and overall reading achievement.
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 13 Fluency Instruction Recommendations Model good oral reading, using fluent phrasing - Reading Aloud -Shared Reading Provide oral support for reading - Choral-Reading -Paired Reading -Echo-Reading -Recorded Materials Offer many practice opportunities - Repeated Readings -Timed Oral Reading Passages -Reader’s Theater
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 14 Prosody “The visible features of punctuation and layout show that small changes can signal big differences in the interrelationships between words…” Clay, M. Change Over Time in Children’s Literacy Development
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 15 Elements of Prosody Pitch (rise and fall of the voice) Stress (loudness or emphasis) Expressiveness, or dramatic interpretation Smoothness, or lack of hesitations and repetitions Intonation or voice inflections
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 16 “The principal,” said the teacher, “is the best in the district.” The principal said, “The teacher is the best in the district.” Clay, M. Change Over Time in Children’s Literacy Development
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 17 Instructional Talk for the Use of Prosody Element of ProsodyInstructional Talk Pitch (rise and fall of the voice) -intonation, voice inflection Ask students to pay attention to punctuation when reading. Remind them that when interpreting punctuation (., ! ?), the sound of the voice may increase in volume, rise, drop/fall, or remain the same. “Did you listen to the sound of your voice as you read that sentence? What did your voice do at the end?” Stress (loudness or emphasis) -intonation, voice inflection There are certain words that students need to emphasize or stress, meaning they can say the word/phrase: loudly, softly, or slowly depending upon context and purpose. “How can you change the sound of your voice or the speed of the reading to show the importance of that word or phrase?”
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 18 Instructional Talk for the Use of Prosody Element of ProsodyInstructional Talk Expressiveness or dramatic interpretation Students need to know that certain words or parts of text should be expressed in a particular manner. “Read the sentence in a way that shows/reveals a sense of feeling (anticipation, tension, character development, or mood).” Smoothness, or lack of hesitations and repetitions Explain to students that when they read, the reading should be at a natural, smooth rate. The reading should flow as naturally as their speech during conversations. “Read that sentence with the same speed as you would when you talk. Go back and reread. Listen to how smooth your reading is now!”
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 19 Tips for Choral-Reading Keep the passage relatively short. Keep it simple—choose material that is on grade level. Select a story or poem that allows students to make the words come alive. Use passages with interesting sounds, contrasts that can be interpreted by volume and intonation, dialogue, or changes in mood.
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 20 Principles of Instruction for Developing Fluency Lessons should be comprehension-oriented. Students and teachers must always remember that reading is about creating meaning. Allow students to spend much of their time reading “comfort” books that are easy for them. An easy book is one that the student can read with approximately 90 percent comprehension and 95 to 100 percent oral accuracy.
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 21 Have students reread texts, with support, until they master them fluently. Have students read with partners to increase the time spent reading aloud. Have students increase the time spent reading at home to further develop fluency. Source: Stahl, S.A. and Kuhn, M.R. “Making It Sound Like Language.”
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 22 Supporting Fluency and Phrasing Have students read a wide variety of easy books with many high-frequency words and with long sentences that sound like normal language. Use prompts that promote fluency. Have students think about the meaning of the story.
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 23 Model phrasing when students get stuck. Help students take in more of a sentence with their eyes by having them avoid pointing and the use of bookmarks. Give students many opportunities to hear language read aloud smoothly. Source: Calkins, L.M. The Art of Teaching Reading. Heinemann.
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 24 Fluency Instructional Approaches Choral-Reading: Where groups of children read the same text aloud. Line-a-Child: Each child reads individually one or two lines of a text, from a rhyme or a poem, and the whole group reads the final lines together. Paired Reading: Pairs read a text together. Echo-Reading: The teacher reads one sentence or phrase at a time, and the student echoes back the same sentence or phrase following the words with a finger so that you can be assured that he is reading. Buddy Reading: Pairs of students get together and decide how they will read the text together. They may choose to read chorally, one page at a time, echo-read, etc. Source: Timothy V. Rasinski. The Fluent Reader: Oral Reading Strategies for Building Word Recognition, Fluency, and Comprehension. Scholastic.
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 25 Repeated Reading: Done silently or orally, oral repeated readings provide additional sensory reinforcement for the reader allowing them to focus on the intonational elements of reading that are essential to phrasing. Cooperative Repeated Reading: Have one student read her passage to her partner three times. Ask the partner to listen and provide assistance where necessary. The partner should also give feedback on the response sheet. Have students reverse roles. Listening Centers: Students listen to books on tape and simultaneously read with the tape. Repeated Readings of High-Frequency Words: Read high-frequency words in phrases. Readers Theater: Students perform scripts by reading assigned parts. Dialogue: Turn a poem or a story into speaking parts. Source: Timothy V. Rasinski. The Fluent Reader: Oral Reading Strategies for Building Word Recognition, Fluency, and Comprehension. Scholastic. Fluency Instructional Approaches
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 26 Fluency Norms Grade LevelFallWinterSpring
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 27 Dr. Tim Rasinski’s Three-Year Study Findings A fourth grade teacher added the following fluency components to her core reading program: Reader’s Theater Timed Oral Reads Oral Partner Reading The results: Average reading level was 2.93; at the end of one year, 93% of students were on or above the 5th grade reading level Source: “A Focus on Fluency: How One Teacher Incorporated Fluency with Her Reading Curriculum.” The Reading Teacher. October, 2004.
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 28 Reader’s Theater Components and Organization
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 29 How Is Reader’s Theater Packaged? Sets of scripts are divided into two main level ranges: F–M (9–28) and N–X (30–60). Within each set are two types of scripts. Scripts for use with small groups that span two to three reading levels and provide parts for 5 to 7 students. Scripts for use with larger groups span eight reading levels and provide parts for up to 12 students.
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 30 Teacher’s Guides provide explicit strategies for maximizing the Reader’s Theater experience with your students. Teaching for fluency with RT Teaching vocabulary and word study with RT Teaching comprehension with RT Teaching character education with RT Support for ELLs and Striving Readers Assessing Fluency through oral reading
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 31 Fluency Skills Covered During the Five-Day Model and Found in the Teacher’s Guide Read with appropriate pacing Read with appropriate pitch Read with appropriate pauses
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 32 Fluency Skills Covered During the Five-Day Model and Found in the Teacher’s Guide Read with dramatic expression Read smoothly Read with phrases and with minimal breaks Pay attention to punctuation
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 33 Reader’s Theater
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 34 Lesson Guide Components Objectives Summary Background Information Characters and Levels Before-, During-, and After-Reading Strategies for Vocabulary, Fluency, and Comprehension
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 35 ELL Support Assessment, Staging, and Performance Suggestions Literacy Extensions Character Education Connections Lesson Guide Components
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 36 Benefits for Students Benefits for Teachers Teachers: can integrate fluency practice into content-area instruction as well as in the literacy block. have facts at their fingertips to help them build background and link prior knowledge easily. are able to make language structures, vocabulary, and concepts accessible to all students. can extend content-area themes or build on literacy lessons. store the scripts in the classroom or a central checkout area. select the scripts you need based on content area, standard, or level. Students: at different reading levels can work together. are motivated to practice and get their role right develop fluency and expression by practicing text at an appropriate reading level. develop oral language skills, comprehension, and academic vocabulary.
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 37 Questions?
© 2006 Benchmark Education Company, LLC PD29 38 If you need additional face-to-face or online training and support, call Benchmark Education Toll-Free: Also, visit our Web site for more information and support with Best Practices Video Clips Professional Development
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