2ACSM Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (ACSM 7th Ed ACSM Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (ACSM 7th Ed., Chapters 7-10)
3Principles of Training Guideline for Exercise Testing and Prescription (ACSM 7th Ed., Chapters 7-10)Principles of TrainingOverload - Work harder than the body is accustomed to.Frequency - number of times per weekIntensity - level of the effort at any given time; speed, weight, hills, water resistance, etc.Duration - time, reps/sets in weight training
4Principles of Training (Continued) FIT Principle - Frequency, Intensity, TimeFrequency and duration together are often referred to as training volume. In weight training volume is often reps/sets (volume per exercise session).Specificity - Adaptations that occur are specific to the type of training performed.
5Principles of Training (Continued) ProgressionGradually increase the overload in an exercise program over time.Prevent possible injury and frustration.NOTE: Increase training volume first, then intensity.Table 7-4, Page 154Reversibility - Training adaptations (improvements) will be lost if training is stopped for a prolonged period of time.In general, the faster the adaptation occurred, the sooner it will be lost once training stops.
6Target Heart Rate, METs, and RPE Aerobic FitnessTarget Heart Rate, METs, and RPETarget Heart RateTarget HR range = 55/65 – 90% HRmaxHeart Rate Reserve (Karvonen) Method:Target HR range = 40/60 – 80% HRRTHRR = [(HRmax – RHR) x .40/.50 and .85] + RHRTarget VO2:VO2 Reserve =(% intensity)(VO2max – VO2rest) + VO2rest
7Aerobic Fitness (Continued) Target Heart Rate, METs, and RPE (Continued)Metabolic Equivalents (METs):One MET = 3.5 ml/kg/min (VO2)Target METs = Target VO2 (ml/kg/min)/3.5 ml/kg/minTarget VO2 based on reserve (R) concept:VO2R = (% intensity)(VO2max – VO2rest) + VO2restNote: current ACSM recommendations suggest using % of VO2R instead of % of VO2maxTable 7.3, Pages 152 –153
8Aerobic Fitness (Continued) Target Heart Rate, METs, and RPE (Continued)RPE – Rating of Perceived Exertion (Borg Scale)Category Scale (6-20) and Category-Ratio Scale (0-10); Table 4-6, Page 79.Guideline of 12 – 16 on CS, 3 – 6 on C-RS; also see Table 7.2, page 150.
10Aerobic Fitness (Continued) Target Heart Rate, METs, and RPE (Continued)General Points for THR, METs, and RPE:These all represent exercise intensity.THR and RPE are most commonly used.METs (target VO2) can be problematic because:METs cannot be easily monitored in many exercise settings.METs will vary with skill level and conditioning in various exercises (e.g., running vs. swimming).THR can be problematic if it is based upon predicted HRmax (220 – age; error of ± 10 bts/min)
11Aerobic Fitness (Continued) Target Heart Rate, METs, and RPE (Continued)Caloric Expenditure GuidelinesAnother guide for exercise prescriptionExpend 150 – 400 Kcal/day (150 for low fitness level)Caloric cost of exercise:Kcal/min = [METs x 3.5 x BW (kg)]/200Note: Caloric expenditure takes into account all three components of overload (FIT).
12Aerobic Fitness (Continued) Exercise Duration and FrequencyDurationThe duration is dependent upon the intensity.To achieve health/fitness benefits, ACSM recommends 20 – 60 min of continuous or intermittent (10-min bouts) of exercise at 60 – 80% of HRR (VO2R).Higher intensity can allow for less time.Lower intensity should be accompanied by a longer duration.
13Aerobic Fitness (Continued) Exercise Duration and Frequency (Continued)FrequencyACSM recommends 3 – 5 days per week.If intensity is low, greater than 3 days/week may be necessary to achieve weight loss goals.
14Muscular FitnessACSM guidelines and the ACSM Position Stand regarding recommendations for muscular fitness programming focuses on health fitness for the general population.Recommendations reflect minimum requirements to develop muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility.These recommendations are not best suited for athletic performance enhancement.
15Muscular Fitness (Continued) Muscular fitness incorporates strength, endurance and flexibility (the text separates flexibility into its own category).Strength improvements are greater with near maximal intensity (resistance) and fewer repetitions.Endurance improvements are greater with lower intensity and more repetitions.For general fitness improvements, exercise prescription develops both strength and endurance.8 to 12 repetitions that result in fatigue (ages < 50 – 60 yrs).10 – 15 repetitions that result in fatigue (ages > 50 – 60 yrs).
16Muscular Fitness (Continued) Exercise prescription recommendations for muscular strength and endurance:Exercises – sufficient number to train all major muscle groups (8 to 10 exercises).Sets – 1 set sufficient to develop strength and endurance.Repetitions – 8 to 12 that result in volitional fatigue (intensity) (10 to 15 for older adults; lower intensity).Frequency – 2 to 3 d/wk.Overall Goal – time efficiency. High drop out rate for general fitness programs if muscular training program is longer than an hour.
17Muscular Fitness (Continued) Muscular flexibility improvements follow the FIT principle as well.Static stretching and PNF stretching are preferred techniques.Static technique is most commonly used.PNF is more time consuming and required assistance from a person trained in the technique.For health fitness purposes, flexibility exercises often target the lower back and posterior hip/hamstring muscles ( rationale is to addresses risk of low back pain).
18Muscular Fitness (Continued) Exercise prescription recommendations for muscular flexibility:Exercises – sufficient number to address major muscle/tendon groups (significant focus on low back/hip/hamstring area).Intensity – Position of mild discomfort.Duration – 10 to 30 s (static stretching).Repetitions – 3 to 4 per stretch.Frequency – 2 to 3 d/wk.
19Maintenance of Training Effect Training adaptations are maintained if intensity is maintained, even if frequency and duration are reduced.This applies to both muscular adaptations and aerobic adaptations.Training improvements begin to decline relatively quickly with complete inactivity (as soon as two weeks). Principle of reversibility.
22Special Populations Cardiopulmonary Patients (Chapters 8 and 9) Primary goal is to regain functional capacity (i.e. return to work status, ability to perform tasks of daily living).Primary consideration is to establish exercise intensity below threshold for onset of problems.Cardiac patients:Box 8-3, page 179Box 8-4, page 180Box 8-6, page 190Pulmonary Patients:page
25Special Populations (Continued) Hypertensives (Chapter 9)General goal is to provide well-rounded fitness program that minimizes risks associated with hypertension.Follow general recommendations for aerobic FIT, with slight reduction in intensity (40% - 70% VO2R).Emphasis on aerobic activity.Monitor blood pressure before, during, and after exercise.Avoid high-intensity resistance training (lower intensity, higher repetitions).Clients should maintain hypertensive medications, if prescribed.Do not exercise if resting SBP > 200 mm Hg or DBP > 115 mm Hg.Stage 3 hypertensives should begin pharmacological treatment prior to starting exercise program (controlled BP prior to starting).
27Special Populations (Continued) Diabetics (Chapter 9)Goal is to follow general fitness guidelines and maintain blood glucose homeostasis.Monitor blood glucose before, during, and after exercise if taking insulin or oral medication.Avoid exercise at peak insulin times.Do not exercise if blood glucose is > 300 mg/dl or >240 mg/dl with urinary ketone bodies.Take CHO if blood glucose is < 80 mg/dl.Note: Table 10-1 (pages 210 – 211) of 6th ed. provides summary of exercise recommendations and precautions.
31Special Populations (Continued) The Obese (Chapter 9)Primary goal is likely fat reduction while trying to maintain lean body mass.Obese individuals will likely lose lean body mass along with fat mass, but the goal is to minimize this.Focus will be on aerobic activity.Generally recommended to reduce/expend 500 –1,000 kcal/day to loose body fat. Acceptable loss is 1% of body weight/week (1.0 – 2.0 lbs/week for avg. person).Exercise objective is to expend >300 kcal/day.Should not reduce total kcal/day intake below 1,200 kcal.
32Current Recommendation of PA for Health Promotion 1996 U.S. Surgeons’ General Report: Physical Activity and Health (USDHHS / CDC / ACSM)Accumulating at least 30 minutes of any kind of moderate intensity physical activity on most days of the weekwould effectively reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke and some kinds of cancer