Food and Health (400:104) Lecture 9 - February 19, 2015 ENERGY AND CALORIES Dr. Quadro.

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Food and Health (400:104) Lecture 9 - February 19, 2015 ENERGY AND CALORIES Dr. Quadro

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Energy How we generate Energy from Food Energy In and Energy Out –Input = Food and Calories –Output = Metabolism (BMR) and Physical Activity Balance –Weight Maintenance –Weight Increase –Weight Loss

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 The Nutrients in Foods Nutrients: substances obtained from food and used in the body to promote growth, maintenance, and repair. Essential nutrients: nutrients that must be obtained from food because the body cannot make them for itself. Nonessential nutrients: nutrients that the body needs, but is able to make in sufficient quantities when needed; do not need to be obtained from food.

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 The Nutrients in Foods The energy-yielding nutrients: –Carbohydrate –Fat –Protein Energy: the capacity to do work, such as moving or heating something –Calorie: the unit used to measure energy Alcohol also provides calories but it is a not considered a nutrient because it is not needed to support life

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Provide Energy? -Carbohydrate -Protein -Fat -Vitamins -Minerals -Water YES NO The energy- yielding nutrients

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Energy Input Energy: the capacity to do work, such as moving or heating something Calorie: the unit used to measure energy –a kilocalorie is a unit of energy –commonly used to express energy value of food

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Definition of calorie (in Physics) calorie: the amount of energy necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius In Nutrition one uses Calorie=kcal (1000 calories)

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Calorie Values Calorie value of carbohydrate, fat, and protein… If you know the number of grams of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in a food, you can calculate the number of calories in it. For example, a deluxe fast-food hamburger contains about 45 grams of carbohydrate, 39 grams of fat and 27 grams of protein (see above). Remember this number…

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Percentage of Total Energy Intake The percentage of your total energy intake from carbohydrate, fat, and protein can then be determined by dividing the number of calories from each energy nutrient by the total calories, and then multiplying the result by 100.

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Calculating Energy Intake Counting Calories If you know the approximate composition of the foods you eat (% carb, pro, fat), and can estimate the weight, you can calculate the number of calories Use the food composition tables Use a diet analysis program

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Calorie Calculation Exercise Premium Crispy Chicken Ranch BLT Sandwich Serving Size: 8.6 oz (245 g) Medium French Fries Serving Size: 4 oz (114 g) Coca-Cola® Classic (Medium) Serving Size: 21 fl. oz

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Calorie Calculation Exercise gramsFAT CARB PRO Sandwich (g) (g) (g) Honey Wheat Roll3487 Crispy Chicken 91319 Bacon717 Ranch Sauce220 Leaf Lettuce000 Tomato Slice010 Medium French Fries16474 Medium COKE0580

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 1161 kcal Calorie Calculation Exercise CALORIES from:FAT CARB PROTotal Sandwich Honey Wheat Roll2719228247 Crispy Chicken 815276209 Bacon6342895 Ranch Sauce188026 Leaf Lettuce0000 Tomato Slice0404 Medium Fries14418816348 Medium COKE02320232

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Components of Energy Output We Need Energy for: Basal Metabolism –BMR = Basal Metabolic Rate Physical Activity Metabolizing Food

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Calories and Energy Balance – NOT higher order math Calories IN = Calories OUTMaintain Weight Calories IN > Calories OUTGAIN Weight Calories IN < Calories OUTLOSE Weight To maintain a desirable weight, energy intakes should not exceed energy needs.

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 It ’ s all about Calorie Balance If you eat more calories than your body uses, they will be stored as fat One pound of body fat is equal to 3,500 kcal –In theory, losing one pound requires a deficit of 3,500 Calories Eating 500 fewer Calories per day - or expending 500 more Calories - would result in losing one pound per week

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 REPEAT: Calorie Balance No Loss or gain of weight occurs when: Number of Calories Consumed EQUALS Number of Calories Expended 1 POUND = 3500 Calories If you eat 500 calories MORE than you expend, every day for an entire week, you WILL gain 1 pound Simple Math

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Input & Output Example Intake: 3,400 kcal Output: 3,005 kcal IMBALANCE: 395 kcal Eating Breakfast 20 min. At the Gym 40 min. Coffee Break 10 min. Sitting in Class 180 min. Walking to Campus 20 min. Dressing/ Washing 20 min. Walking on Campus 30 min. Snack 10 min. Lirary/Study 180 min. Eating Lunch 30 min. Walking Home 20 min. Eating Dinner 30 min. Check email 30 min. Driving to-from Date 30 min. Sleep 71/2 hours Dancing 40 min. Eating Snack 20 min Hanging out with Date 120 min Emailing/Texting Studying 120 min Undress/Shower 30 min 650 50 100 270 210 25 150 250 25 395 700 75 200 280 100 75 1200 65 55 400 390 50 180 260 105 490 Walking to-from Campus 30 min. A day in the life…

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Weight Management To maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Energy Expenditure Calorie expenditure depends on: –Weight of person –Type of activity Length of activity Speed of activity Metabolic rate From: Ainsworth, BE, et. al. 1993. Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 25 (1): 71-80.

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 How much exercise to offset breakfast? Bagel with Cream Cheese Coffee with Cream Dunkin Donuts Muffin 309 Calories 490 Calories 32 Minutes Running a 10 Minute Mile = 25 Minutes Swimming Laps 25 Minutes Cycling @ 15 mi/hr 1 2 125 pound (45kg woman) =

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 How much exercise to cancel out lunch? Turkey Sandwich 12 oz. Soda 1 oz. Potato Chips 585 Calories 366 Calories 9 Miles Walking Briskly @13 min/mile = 1 Hour of Downhill Skiing 1 2 2 Slices of Cheese Pizza 125 pound (45kg woman) =

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 The ABCs of Eating for Health Adequacy getting all of the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy (calories) in amounts sufficient to maintain health Balance eating foods rich in one nutrient while not crowding out foods that are rich in another nutrient Calorie control control of energy consumption Moderation no unwanted constituent in excess Variety different foods, same purposes, different occasions

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 The ABCs of Eating for Health Nutrient dense: refers to a food that supplies large amounts of nutrients relative to the number of calories it contains. The higher the level of nutrients and the fewer the number of calories, the more nutrient dense the food

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Nutrient Recommendations –Established by a committee of nutrition experts selected by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) –Based on latest scientific evidence regarding diet and health –The first set, called the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), was first published in 1943 and made for the intake of energy and nutrients at risk for deficiency (protein, vitamins and minerals); revised ten times –In the mid-1990's, the DRIs replaced the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) in the United States

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI): a set of reference values for energy and nutrients that can be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people. Since 1997, DRIs have been developed for six nutrient groups: –Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D and fluoride (1997) –B vitamins and choline (1998) –Vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and beta-carotene (2000) –Vitamins A and K and the trace elements (iron, zinc and copper) (2001) –Electrolytes (potassium, sodium chloride and sulfate) and water (2004) –Energy and macronutrients (carbohydrates, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, proteins and amino acids) (2005) –Calcium and vitamin D (2010) - Newest!

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs are designed for planning and assessing diets of healthy people. Amounts recommended by DRIs are meant to promote good health and reduce incidence of chronic disease. The DRIs are not necessarily to be consumed every day but should be consumed on most days, as an average intake. DRIs include values for different life-stage groups.

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) For micro- and macro-nutrients include: -Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), used to evaluate nutrient intake of populations -Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) also recommend specific amounts of nutrients for individuals -Adequate Intakes (AI) recommend specific amounts of nutrients for individuals -Tolerable Upper Intake Limit (UL) helps individuals with the prevention of nutrient toxicities

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Reference Value Definitions Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) –a daily nutrient intake value that is estimated to meet the requirements of half the healthy individuals in a certain life-stage group (same gender) –intake at which the risk of inadequacy is 0.5 (50 percent) to an individual Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) –Higher than EAR and based on EAR values –the average daily intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group –the intake at which the risk of inadequacy is very small— only 0.02 to 0.03 (2 to 3 percent)

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Reference Value Definitions (cont.) Adequate intakes (AIs) –Are not based on EAR values. Are used when there is insufficient scientific evidences to set an EAR and calculate the RDA. It indicates the need of more research on that specific nutrient. –It averages nutrient intake by a healthy population. In order to set an AI a criterion of adequacy must be established. Tolerable Upper Limit (UL) –highest level of a daily nutrient that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all healthy individuals. –A specific adverse effect or indicator is considered.

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Tolerable upper intake level (UL): it is not intended to be a recommended level of intake. –The need for setting UL is the result of more and more people using large doses of nutrient supplements and the increasing availability of fortified foods. Reference Value Definitions (cont.)

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Setting DRIs http://books.nap.edu/execsumm_pdf/6015.pdf Risk of Effects Due to Toxicity Risk of Effects Due to Deficiency Consumed Amount

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Setting DRIs EAR: 50% risk of inadequacy Between RDA and UL: Risk of inadequacy and of excess are both close to 0 http://books.nap.edu/execsumm_pdf/6015.pdf RDA: 2-3% risk of inadequacy UL: Upper Limit with no risk of inadequacy or adverse effects

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Setting DRIs http://books.nap.edu/execsumm_pdf/6015.pdf Goal for Daily Intake of Individuals

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 The DRIs make two types of energy intake recommendations: Estimated energy requirement: (EER): the average calorie intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity, consistent with good health. Used to maintain weight stable in a healthy individual. Acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR): a range of intakes for a particular energy source (carbohydrates, fat, protein) that is associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. AMDR have also been set for specific amino acids and fatty acids.

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Recommended intake ranges for energy nutrients Carbs45 to 65% of total calories Fats20 to 35% of total calories Proteins10 to 35% of total calories

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Why DRIs are improved over RDAs alone Reduction of risk of chronic disease is included in recommendation, rather than just absence of signs of deficiency Concepts of probability and risk used for determinations UL established where data for adverse effects exist Foods containing ‘ nutrients ’ with possible health benefit were reviewed and potential reference intakes established

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 The Correct View of the DRI

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dietary Guidelines for Americans The Dietary Guidelines for Americans is a set of diet and lifestyle recommendations designed to promote health and reduce chronic disease risks. Unlike the DRIs, which provide recommendations for specific amounts of nutrients and food components, they suggest overall diet and lifestyle that will promote health. 23 recommendations in 9 categories for all healthy Americans 2 years+ Get more nutrients in fewer calories, improve balance between food intake and exercise, limit dietary components that contribute to chronic diseases, keep food safe

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 1992 Food Guide Pyramid

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 2005 MyPyramid 12 pyramids based on calories and physical activity

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 MyPyramid Key Components Activity –Regular physical activity and reduced sedentary activities Variety –Eat foods from all groups and subgroups Proportionality –Identifies proportions of foods that should make a healthful diet Moderation –Consume less of solid fats and added sugars –Consume more of nutrient-rich foods Personalization –One size does not fit all –Customize your plan at www.MyPyramid.gov Gradual improvement –Take small steps to improve diet and lifestyle everyday –Visit www.smallstep.gov

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 2010 MyPlate http://www.choosemyplate.gov/ http://www.choosemyplate.gov/downloads/GettingStartedWithMyPlate.pdf

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 MyPlate Key Components Variety –Eat foods from all groups and subgroups Proportionality –Identifies proportions of foods that should make a healthful diet Moderation –Consume less of solid fats and added sugars –Consume more of nutrient-rich foods Nutrient-dense food

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Food Label http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/foodlab.html

Department of Food Science Lecture 9 – February 19, 2015 Making Better Food Choices Don ’ t supersize Think grilled, not fried Hold the mayo Avoid all-you-can-eat restaurants “ Just say no. ” 690 calories 24 g fat 8 g saturated fat 1,350 calories 43 g fat 13 g saturated fat

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