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Biomechanics of Gait Walking E. Muybridge. Applications Walking as a Critical Fundamental Movement Pattern Walking as a Recreational Activity Walking.

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Presentation on theme: "Biomechanics of Gait Walking E. Muybridge. Applications Walking as a Critical Fundamental Movement Pattern Walking as a Recreational Activity Walking."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomechanics of Gait Walking E. Muybridge

2 Applications Walking as a Critical Fundamental Movement Pattern Walking as a Recreational Activity Walking as a Modality for Rehabilitation Walking as a Competitive Sport Influence of Injury/Disease/Disability on Walking Aging Effects on Walking and Implications Independence Footwear Issues Energy Cost E. Muybridge Biomechanics of Gait Walking

3 Describing the Gait Cycle Characteristics of Walking Cyclic Universal Pattern Bi-laterally symmetric Range of Speeds Adaptable to Varied Surfaces Efficient Biomechanics of Gait Walking

4 Describing the Gait Cycle Phases of the Gait Cycle Stance Phase  Initial Double Limb Support  Single Limb Support  Terminal Double Limb Support Swing Phase  Initial Swing  Terminal Swing Biomechanics of Gait Walking

5 When we walk, what must happen ?? Control Forces Produce Resist Dissipate Biomechanics of Gait Walking

6 Objectives Control Forces Maintain Balance Biomechanics of Gait Walking

7 Objectives Resist/Dissipate Forces Maintain Balance Move Body in Intended Direction Biomechanics of Gait Walking

8 Objectives Resist/Dissipate Forces Maintain Balance Move Body in Intended Direction Conserve Energy Biomechanics of Gait Walking

9 Produce/Resist /Dissipate Force Source of Forces Gravity Muscle Contraction Inertia Magnitude of Forces.1 to 1.2 BW’s Direction of Forces Vertical Fore/Aft Medial Lateral Biomechanics of Gait Walking

10 Produce/Resist /Dissipate Force Forces produce moments (torques) that…. Cause rotations – Total Body Joint Segment Biomechanics of Gait Walking

11 Maintain Balance The Issues – Dynamic Movement Influenced by external factors Single versus Double Support Depends on Multiple Systems Adaptations in Base of Support Walking……..a series of catastrophes narrowly averted…… Biomechanics of Gait Walking

12 Move Body in Intended Direction Re-Positioning of Center of Gravity Re-Positioning of Limb Segments Force Production applied to the ground Biomechanics of Gait Walking

13 Conserve Energy The Six Determinants of Gait (Inman, et. al.) Biomechanics of Gait Walking

14 Energy Expenditure = Work Done Work = Force x Distance Force = Mass x Acceleration Therefore – the amount of energy we expend is directly related to the amount of mass we move and the extent and speed of movement The Six Determinants of Gait Underlying Concept Biomechanics of Gait Walking

15 Determinants of Gait Pelvic Rotation – transverse plane Lateral Pelvic Tilt – frontal plane Knee Flexion – during stance Ankle PF - at Toe Off Ankle DF – at Foot strike Gait Width – frontal plane Biomechanics of Gait Walking

16 Role of Foot Motion Objectives To aid in force dissipation To provide a mobile adapter To provide a rigid lever for propulsion Mechanism - Sub-talar Joint Motion A Tri-planar motion PF and DF Inversion/Eversion AB/ADduction Biomechanics of Gait Walking

17 Lateral SideMedial Side At Ground Contact Contact Made on the Lateral Border of the Heel Foot is Supinated Foot is Rigid Biomechanics of Gait Walking

18 Early Stance to MidStance Lateral SideMedial Side Foot is Pronated Foot is Mobile (flexible) Enhances Balance Biomechanics of Gait Walking

19 Lateral SideMedial Side Late Stance to Toe-Off Foot is Supinated Foot is Rigid Enhances Propulsion Biomechanics of Gait Walking

20 Pronation/Supination Issues: Too Little – Loss of force dissipation Loss of Mobility – Balance Stress Injury Too Much Relationship to Tibial Rotation Associated Patellar Tracking Issues Soft-Tissue Stress Control of Pronation/Supination Shoe Design Orthotics Muscle Strengthening – Posterior Tib Biomechanics of Gait Walking

21 Biomechanics of Gait Running

22  As a component of competitive sport  As a recreational activity  As a stage of motor development  As a cause of injury Running: Biomechanics of Gait Running

23  Velocity - Greater range than walking  Kinematic Parameters - Increase in most  Kinetic Parameters - Increase in some  Energy Cost - Generally greater  Phasic Differences……. Biomechanics of Gait Running Differences between walking and running

24  Walking -  Always a Double Support Phase  No Flight Phase Walking Biomechanics of Running Differences Between Walking and Running

25  Walking -  Always a Double Support Phase  No Flight Phase Walking Running  Running -  Never a Double Support Phase  Always a flight Phase Applied Biomechanics Biomechanics of Running Differences Between Walking and Running

26 Running What’s Involved?  Project body vertically/horizontally  Sufficient vertical/horizontal impulse  Flight  Dissipate impact  Appropriate vertical/horizontal impulse  Maintain balance in single support  Re-position limbs

27 How is Propulsion Produced?  Propulsive Force  Segment motion  Newtons 3rd  Transfer of Momentum  Free leg  Arms

28 How is Momentum Dissipated?  Foot Mechanism  Ankle Mechanism  Knee Mechanism  Shoe Mechanism  Surface Mechanism

29 Walking/Running Forces GRF Differences Walking Running

30 Ground Reaction Forces in Running  GRF’s Influenced by  Velocity  Vertical Displacement  Shoes  Surface  GRF’s Influence  Foot Pressures  Joint Forces  Joint Moments  Impact Shock

31 Braking/Propelling GRF in Running

32 M/L GRF in Running

33 Running - Joint ROM Adaptations  Ankle  Increased PF/DF  Increased pronation/supination  Knee  Increased flexion in early stance and swing  Hip  Increased flexion and extension  Pelvis  Increased transverse plane rotation  Arms  Increased shoulder ROM  Increased elbow flexion

34 RearFoot Motion in Running  Sub-talar Joint Motion  Increases duration of impact - facilitates dissipation of momentum  Locks/un-locks mid-foot - adaptation to terrain  Provides rigidity for propulsion  Dynamic Measurement - rearfoot angle  Relationship between calcaneus and shank  ***FootTrak***

35 Rearfoot Motion - Too Much…Too Little

36 Running Shoes Issues

37 Biomechanics of Running Issues? The Problem !!! Surface/Shoe Cushioning.. Versus.. Energy Cost

38 Biomechanics of Running Issues? What Factors Influence Speed ??? Speed = Stride Length x Stride Rate Stride Length Anthropometric Factors Strength Flexibility Neuromuscular Factors Stride Rate Neuromuscular Factors Technique Can Running Speed be Improved ??? Yes !!!!!!!

39 Biomechanics of Running Issues? What Factors Influence Energy Cost ??? Speed Vertical Displacement “Extra” Motion Optimum Stride Length…Stride Rate Relationship Can Running Efficiency be Improved ??? Yes……..but!

40 Biomechanics of Running Issues? Injuries – A Biomechanical Origin Most running injuries have a biomechanical origin !! Issues – Force Inability to dissipate force Repetition


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