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GHSGT Review Week 1: Cells Cell Transport Chemistry of LIfe.

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Presentation on theme: "GHSGT Review Week 1: Cells Cell Transport Chemistry of LIfe."— Presentation transcript:

1 GHSGT Review Week 1: Cells Cell Transport Chemistry of LIfe

2 Cells

3 Cell Theory All living things are made of cells All come from preexisting cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function of life

4 Robert Hooke 1 st saw cells under microscope

5 Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Cells


7 Prokaryotic Cells continued Kingdom – EUBACTERIA or ARCHEABACTERIA (these used to be the old single kingdom MONERA) EUBACTERIA are the common bacteria that are found everywhere ARCHEABACTERIA are found only in very hostile environments (hot steam vents, areas with very high or low pH or places that have a high salt content)

8 EUKARYOTIC CELLS HAVE A NUCLEUS All:PlantsAnimalsFungiProtista Are examples of organisms that have eukaryotic cells

9 Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells

10 Animal Cells Nucleus – The control center of the cell Ribosomes- the site of protein synthesis Endoplasmic Reticulum – a system of transport pathways throughout the cell Golgi (apparatus, body, complex) a stack of flattened sacks, sacks are filled with materials that exit the cell Cell Membrane - also called the PLASMA MEMBRANE –a barrier that keeps the inside in and the outside out. Mitochondria – the powerhouse of the cell – the site of Cellular Respiration

11 More Animal Cell Organelles Lysosomes – vesicles that contain digestive enzymes – the stomach of the cell. the stomach of the cell. Vacuoles – Water filled sacks – animal cell have many small water vacuoles small water vacuoles Cilia & Flagella – long hair like structures used for locomotion – flagella = one long whip, flagella = one long whip, Cilia = many short - allover the outer surface of the cell Cilia = many short - allover the outer surface of the cell Vesicles – fluid filled sacks that contain various materials

12 And MORE animal cell organelles Cytoplasm – (cyto=cell; plasm=liquid) the gel in the cell in which the organelles are the organelles are suspended. suspended. Chromosomes – Coiled DNA Nuclear Membrane – separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell – also called,”the from the rest of the cell – also called,”the nuclear envelope” nuclear envelope” Nucleolus- Found inside the nucleus – this produces ribosomes ribosomes

13 Plant Cells Same as animal, EXCEPT: –Have cell wall – made of CELLULOSE –Have chloroplast (plastid) – contains the photosynthetic pigment called CHLOROPHYLL –Have one LARGE vacuole –Do NOT have centrioles


15 Cell Transport and Homeostasis

16 Homeostasis Maintaining a stable internal environment Examples: maintaining a constant internal body temperature Water regulation

17 Crossing the Plasma Membrane Passive Transport – does not require energy input on the part of the cell. Active Transport – requires the cell to expend energy

18 Passive Transport Diffusion – particles moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration examples – smells, water evaporation, Osmosis – water moving across a cell membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

19 Active Transport Sodium – Potassium Pump – Endocytosis – (into the cell) phagocytosis – large solid particles are brought into the cell brought into the cell pinocytosis – small or liquid (non-water) particles are brought into the particles are brought into the cell. cell. Exocytosis (out of the cell) materials are released from the cell

20 Day three

21 Chemistry of Life

22 Elements 6 elements in all living things: CPHONS

23 Water AdhesionCohesionPolarMeniscus

24 Organic Compounds CarbohydratesLipidsProteins Nucleic Acids

25 Organic Compounds Carbohydrates – saccharides Lipids – fats and oils Proteins **** –Made of Amino Acids –Enzymes (Catalysts) Nucleic Acids –DNA & RNA

26 What Do Living Things Do?

27 Absorb (take in nutrients) ExcreteDigestBiosynthesisSecreteReproduceAdapt Use Energy

28 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

29 1. In this process, cells use glucose to produce energy PhotosynthesisHomeostasisRespirationlysosome

30 2. This describes how our body temperature stays at a safe level. RespirationHeterotrophMitochondrionhomeostasis

31 3. Which of the following is an autotroph? FungiTreeAmoebaGoldfish

32 4. Which of the following is a heterotroph? WheatHumanDandeliongrass

33 5. What controls movement in and out of the cell? Cell wall Cytoplasm Cell membrane nucleus

34 6. The site of photosynthesis is the Cell wall NucleusMitochondrionchloroplast

35 7. It is where protein synthesis takes place CytoplasmRibosomeNucleuschromosome

36 8. It controls the movement in and out of the nucleus. Cell membrane Nucleolus Nuclear membrane ribosome

37 9. It is involved in the breakdown of food in the cell. LysosomeRibosomeVacuoleMitochondrion

38 10. It is the rigid structure that gives shape to plant cells. Cell wall Endoplasmic reticulum Cell membrane Nuclear membrane

39 11. Glucose is changed into pyruvic acid during PhotosynthesisGlycolysis Electron transport The Kreb’s Cycle

40 12. In this process, pyruvic acid and oxygen yield carbon dioxide, water and ATP. PhotosynthesisGlycolysis Electron transport Kreb’s Cycle

41 13. Two structures found in plant cells and not in animal cells are Mitochondria and chloroplasts Ribosomes and cell walls Cell wall and chloroplasts Cell membrane and cell wall

42 14. When more water goes into a cell than out of a cell, the solution around the cell is HypertonicHypotonicIsotonicdestroyed

43 15. Which element is present in all living things? IronCarbonHeliumSodium

44 16. What is the function of an enzyme in a biochemical reaction? CatalystSolventInhibitornutrient

45 17. All living things exhibit the following characteristics EXCEPT: Growth and development Response to the environment Respiration of oxygen Transfer of genetic information

46 18. Which of the following is true of MOST living things? A male and female are required for reproduction All cells of the organism are the same All organisms have cells arranged into tissues The ultimate source of energy for all organisms is the sun.

47 NEXT WEEK:Heredity Mitosis & Meiosis Transcription, Translation, Replication Punnett Squares, Dominance Genetic Diseases

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