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EPSY 275: Learning & Motivation SchoolMotivation.

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Presentation on theme: "EPSY 275: Learning & Motivation SchoolMotivation."— Presentation transcript:

1 EPSY 275: Learning & Motivation SchoolMotivation

2 Basic Motivational Concepts Motivation energizes and directs behavior Motivated behavior is goal-directed behavior Motivation has qualitative and quantitative properties Motivation can only be inferred from behavior

3 Behavioral Indicators of Motivation Choice Intensity Persistence

4 Choice Goal setting stage of motivation (first stage) Decision about which goal to pursue among available options Reflects consciously or unconsciously learner’s priorities Most informative when unrestrained Measure of qualitative property

5 Intensity Goal striving stage of motivation (second stage) Measure of strength (a quantitative property) Logic – the greater the strength of a motive the greater the amount of energy a person will expend to obtain that goal

6 Persistence Also refers to goal striving stage Also a measure of the strength of a motive Related duration of effort to strength Logic - the greater the strength of a motive the greater the duration of time a person will attempt to obtain that goal (particular after experiencing failure or difficulty)

7 The Expectancy-Value Principle Effort = Expectancy X Task Value Expectancy refers to the strength of person’s belief that they will achieve the goal Task Value refers to the relative importance of the goal given the other available options People try the hardest and longest to obtain a goal when they are confident they can obtain it AND they place great value on it

8 Expectancy for Success

9 Outcomes = Goals Outcomes result from our actions Outcomes often confused with actions (i.e., my goal is to run 2 miles) Outcome can be intangible (maybe a psychological or physical state) resulting from an action (i.e., how I feel after running 2 miles and the endorphins “kick in”) or tangible (prize money won from running)

10 Three classes of Outcomes (Motivators) Positive & negative physical effects Positive and negative social effects Affective self-reactions

11 Relationship between Outcome & Efficacy Expectancies Efficacy Expectancies Outcome Expectancies -+ + Protest Grievance Social Activism Milieu Change Productive Engagement Aspiration Personal satisfaction - Resignation Apathy Self-devaluation Despondency

12 Sources of Efficacy Expectancies Task accomplishments Vicarious experiences Verbal persuasion Physiological State Causal analysis

13 Attribution Theory Concerned with causal analysis phase of self-evaluation Our beliefs about the cause of our performance in a situation influences our expectancy for future performance in that situation Focus on achievement situation - a situation in which a person's performance is compared to some standard

14 Dimensions of Causality Stability Locus Controllability

15 The Stability Dimension Causes that are expected to be consistently or regularly operating in the situation are said to be stable Causes that are expected to be irregularly or only occasionally operating in the situation are said to be unstable

16 The Locus Dimension Causes that originate outside of the person are said to be external Causes that originate within the person are said to be internal

17 The Controllability Dimension Causes that are under the control of the person are said to be controllable Causes that are not under the control of the person are said to be uncontrollable

18 The Process of Causal Analysis

19 Possible Outcomes According to Expectancy Principle of Attribution Theory

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