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WTC-Fitness Overview Terms you need to know: 1.Lateral -directionally away from the mid-line. 2.Medial -directionally towards the mid-line. 3.Posterior.

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Presentation on theme: "WTC-Fitness Overview Terms you need to know: 1.Lateral -directionally away from the mid-line. 2.Medial -directionally towards the mid-line. 3.Posterior."— Presentation transcript:

1 WTC-Fitness Overview Terms you need to know: 1.Lateral -directionally away from the mid-line. 2.Medial -directionally towards the mid-line. 3.Posterior -behind or in back of. 4.Anterior -front side or in front of. 5.Flexors-muscles that close a joint. Flexing your bicep muscle is an example of flexion. 6.Extensors-muscles that open out a joint. Moving your arm from a bent position to a straight position is an example of extension. 7.Warm-up – engaging in activity that prepares the muscles for the work that is to come. 8.Cool-down – engaging in activity to gradually decrease activity. 9.Aerobic exercise – vigorous activity in which oxygen is continuously taken in for a period of at least 20 minutes. 10.Anaerobic exercise – intense bursts of activity in which the muscles work so hard that they produce energy without using oxygen. 11.Progression – a gradual increase in overload necessary for achieving higher levels of fitness. 12.Specificity – principle that states that particular exercises and activities improve particular areas of health-related fitness.

2 21. Muscular strength – the amount of force a muscle can exert. 22. Muscular endurance – the ability of the muscles to do difficult physical tasks over a period of time without causing fatigue. 23. Flexibility – the ability to move a body part through a full range of motion. 24. Cardio-respiratory endurance – the ability of the heart lungs, and blood vessels to send fuel and oxygen to the body’s tissues during long periods of vigorous activity. 11.Overload – Working the body harder than it is usually worked. 12.Metabolism-The process by which your body gets energy from food. 13.Maximum Heart Rate -the maximum amount of beats per minute that your heart should be during exercise. 16.Resting heart rate – the number of times your heart beats in one minute when you are not active. 17.Target heat rate -the range in which your heart rate should be during exercise for maximum cardio-respiratory endurance. 18.Pacing –to set the speed at which somebody runs, moves, or does something. 19.Muscle tone -the natural tension in the fibers of a muscle. 20.Calories – units of heat. You get energy from food, and the energy value of food is measured in calories.

3  Contraction of a joint means that you decrease the angle of the joint. Extension of a joint means that you increase the angle of the joint.  When might you use contraction and extension during weight-training?  Performing strength training can help you increase your metabolism in three substantial ways. 1-While you are performing resistance training, you are expending additional calories, thereby increasing your caloric burn, or metabolism, for that given day. 2- After you complete your strength training workout, for the next hours, your body will have to work harder than normal in order to repair the muscle tissues that have had stress imposed on them. As your body is recovering from your most recent strength training workout, you are burning more calories. Finally, performing resistance training will help increase your metabolism because it promotes an increase in lean body mass or muscle tissue. Muscle is highly metabolically active which means that it requires more calories than fat to be maintained. The more muscle you support, the more calories you will burn. The best way to add muscle is through hypertrophy training. A hypertrophy training program usually consists of intensities (or weight lifted) between 75%-85% of your 1 repetition maximum and repetitions for 3-5 sets with minimal rest periods. This type of training will stimulate the muscles to grow. (National Academy of Sports Medicine) Concepts related to Muscle Use

4  Tendons are fibrous cords that join muscle to bone or to other muscles. Ligaments are tough band of fibrous, elastic tissue that bind the bone ends at the joint.  An unused muscle will atrophy, or waste away. To maintain muscle tone, you need to keep active and eat balanced, nutritious meals throughout your lifetime. Activity that maintains muscle tone is especially important as you get older to prevent loss of mobility, balance, and the risk of falls.  Being overweight means weighing more than 10% over the standard weight for height; Obesity means having excess body fat. Usually, being overweight and being obese go hand in hand, but not always. A person with a lot of muscle can weigh more than they should for their height because muscle weighs like fat does. The difference is muscle burns more calories than fat. So that person would be healthy.  Two things that contribute to obesity are a sedentary lifestyle and poor eating habits. …continued

5  Performing strength training can help you increase your metabolism in three substantial ways. 1-While you are performing resistance training, you are expending additional calories, thereby increasing your caloric burn, or metabolism, for that given day. 2- After you complete your strength training workout, for the next hours, your body will have to work harder than normal in order to repair the muscle tissues that have had stress imposed on them. As your body is recovering from your most recent strength training workout, you are burning more calories. Finally, performing resistance training will help increase your metabolism because it promotes an increase in lean body mass or muscle tissue. Muscle is highly metabolically active which means that it requires more calories than fat to be maintained. The more muscle you support, the more calories you will burn. The best way to add muscle is through hypertrophy training. A hypertrophy training program usually consists of intensities (or weight lifted) between 75%-85% of your 1 repetition maximum and repetitions for 3-5 sets with minimal rest periods. This type of training will stimulate the muscles to grow. (National Academy of Sports Medicine) Concepts related to Metabolism

6  Calories are a measure of the energy in food and the energy your body burns. Some foods have more calories than others. The specific number of calories depends on the amount of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the food as well as the portion size. The way a food is prepared also affects the calorie count. Carbs are the body’s preferred source of energy and the body will pull energy from carbs first. Carbohydrates and protein supply four calories per gram. Fat supplies more than twice as much—nine calories per gram. For this reason, even small amounts of fat in a food significantly increase its caloric content.  Our body needs a certain amount of calories per day just to regulate the body processes of digestion, respiration, etc. How many calories each person needs depends on several factors: rate of growth, body size, gender, age, activity level, and metabolic rate.  Keeping a healthy weight is an issue of energy balance. Very simply, calories consumed must equal calories burned. If you take in fewer calories than you expend, you will lose body weight. You expend calories through aerobic exercise. If you take in more calories than you expend, you will gain. Your body stores the extra calories as body fat. Each pound of body fat is equal to about 3,500 calories. You could use a formula to lose or gain weight. To lose one pound a week, which is a realistic, healthy goal, you need to consume 500 fewer calories than normal each day (500 less calories x 7 days=3500 calories less=one pound less body weight).  The best high performance diet for sports is a balanced, moderate, varied, and nutrient- dense diet (a diet that include healthy nutrients void of unhealthy ingredients). Concepts related to Calories and How We Use Them

7  Isotonic exercise is activity that combines muscle contraction with repeated movement, like push-up, or lifting weights. Isometric exercise is activity that uses muscle tension to improve muscular strength with little or no movement of the body part. An example would be putting the palms of your hands together in front of you and pushing them together. Isokinetic exercise is activity that involves resistance through an entire range of motion, like pushing/pulling against a hydraulic lever of certain exercise equipment.  In order for an exercise program to be effective, it should follow the F.I.T. formula: Frequency – refers to how often you do an activity each week. Workouts should be scheduled 3-4 times a week, depending on the type of activity you are doing and your goal. Intensity – refers to how hard you work at the activity during a session. You need to work your muscles and cardio-respiratory system at a level of intensity that permits you to achieve overload. You must start slowly and build endurance. Time – refers to how much time you devote to a given session. The goal for an aerobic activity is to spend minutes working at your target heart rate range. In weight training, do the exercises slowly, taking at least two seconds each time you lower a weight. Rest for one or two minutes between sets and do a variety of exercises to strengthen your muscles in the full range of motion.  Perspiration allows the body to cool as it evaporates on the skin. Concepts Related to Exercise

8 Other Concepts to Consider  The skeletal system provides a strong, stable, and mobile framework on which the muscles can act. It also protects and supports your internal organs. The muscular system pumps blood throughout your body, moves food through your digestive system, and controls the movement of air in and out of your lungs. Together they work to allow the body to move and be active.  Excess body fat strains the body frame and increases the workload of the heart and the lungs. Obese people have a higher risk of health problems, including hypertension, diabetes, high blood cholesterol, atherosclerosis, and some cancers. It can affect self-esteem and social health.


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