Presentation on theme: "MARCY REISETTER, COUNSELING AND PSYCHOLOGY IN EDUCATION, ROSANNE YOST, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH DAKOTA PLEASE PICK UP EACH OF THE."— Presentation transcript:
MARCY REISETTER, COUNSELING AND PSYCHOLOGY IN EDUCATION, ROSANNE YOST, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH DAKOTA PLEASE PICK UP EACH OF THE MULTICOLORED SURVEYS AND COMPLETE THEM BEFORE WE BEGIN FOR THE ACADEMIC MOTIVATION SCALE, SUBSTITUTE “ATTEND STAFF DEVELOPMENT” FOR “ATTEND COLLEGE” 1 Essential Principles of Motivation
2 What motivates you to learn in an academic setting? To what extent is lack of motivation an issue in your classroom? How do you address the problem? How would you assess the success of your interventions?
A Social Cognitive View of Motivation [Contrast to Behavior Modification] 3 A Different way to think about Motivation: Learner Centered Social—Learners “read” the social and academic expectations of the setting Cognitive—Mind Mediated Motivation is a STATE not a trait
The Ultimate goal of Education: Self-Regulated Learners who... 4 Accept responsibility for their own learning Are flexible in their thinking and problem solving Develop and use self-monitoring skills Are collaborative in task-focused skills Are willing to seek help and support from others Focus on personal progress Focus on learning rather than grades or test scores Welcome challenge How does this compare to the learners we cultivate now?
3 Basic Principles 5 Motivation can be defined as our willingness to Engage Commit Persist in an academic task [challenge] Motivation beliefs are stored in connections in our long term memory, [schema] based on our experiences and interpretations of them. Our motivation is influenced by our Expectations for Success and Value for the Task E multiplied by V
Schemata 6 Mental organizing structures—existing idea networks-- that guide perception and categorize experiences Whether we are aware of them or not, these networks determine how we interpret our experiences and extract meaning from them Motivation schemas can be Adaptive, or Mal-adaptive What happens when a motivation schema is Mal-adaptive?
Expectancy x Value Judgments 7 Our willingness to expend the effort on an academic task depends on Our Expectations for success with reasonable effort Our assessment of the Value and meaningfulness of the task.
Value for the Task 8 What kinds of tasks do your students VALUE? Why? What do you see when they don’t value a task?
Value is Enhanced When the Task is Meaningful Connected Relevant Useful How do we do that?
Reasonable Expectations for Success 10 Where do they come from? How do learners with expectations for success approach tasks? How do learners with lower expectations for success approach tasks ?
Student Responses Based on E x V Has low success expectations Has high success expectations Does not value the task Rejection: Refuses to participate Evasion: Does the minimum required Values the task Dissembling: Moves to protect image of competence Engagement: Seeks to learn
Expectations for Success are Enhanced when learners Believe in incremental rather than innate intelligence Learn for internalized, self-regulated purposes Pursue mastery goals Have high self-efficacy Attribute success and/or failure to an internal locus of control Have necessary learning strategies and tools
“Motivation Constructs” 13 Each of the previous statements represents a set of ideas that individuals hold—ideas that influence their willingness to “engage commit, and particularly PERSIST” in an academic tasks Each addresses learners’ expectations for success in a given task setting
#1: Beliefs About Intelligence & Knowledge What is Knowledge? Who has it? How do we get it? Where does it come from?
Beliefs about Knowledge Assumptions individuals hold about The nature of knowledge Certainty Complexity How knowledge is attained Role of innate ability Role of effort
Beliefs about Learning Survey [blue] Factor 1: Fixed Ability. Is ability fixed or is it Incremental? [high points] [low points] Factor 2: Simple Knowledge Is knowledge simple... Or is it... Complex? [high points] [low points] Factor 3: Certain Knowledge Is knowledge certain... Or is it.... Relative? [high points] [low points] Factor 4: Quick Learning Accomplished quickly.... Or... with sustained effort? [high points] [low points]
How are these beliefs relevant to educators and their practices?
Implications: Recognize That Everyone holds beliefs about intelligence and knowledge that influence their learning AND behaviors. These beliefs affect the way we reason Beliefs about knowledge are NOT strongly related to ability, but they are strongly related to engagement and motivation issues
#2: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 20 Extrinsic motivation: for external motives, such as incentives and rewards Intrinsic motivation: for internal motives, please in the task for it’s own sake Which do schools most actively promote? Why? How do you know? What is the message to learners? Which is the most powerful approach for learning?
The continuum approach: Self Determination 21 Assumption: the element that defines the difference between Extrinsic and Intrinsic motivation is the degree to which the individual determines task value and importance-- “BUY IN”—aka “Engagement ”
Levels of task buy in 22 Based on “Who initiates the involvement and why?” Extrinsic Motivation has 4 levels External Regulation Introjected Regulation Identified Regulation Integrated Regulation
Buy-In Extrinsic Intrinsic External Regulation Introjected Regulation Identified Regulation Integrated Regulation Completely initiated outside… Reward or punishment… Accepts standards other have specified Values standards… Willing engagement… Fits own ultimate goals
24 Think of a learning experience in which YOU “moved along the continuum.” What happened to your learning? How was your experience related to Expectation for Success and Value for the Task? So HOW do we move learners “along the continuum”?
Basic Learner Needs 25 Competence Belief that one can accomplish the task Autonomy Self initiation, self direction, and self regulation Relatedness To others in the learning setting Connections to overall learning goals
Implications: Support for Basic Needs 26 Competence: Attention to task definition Clear Manageable Challenging Criterion referenced success standards Autonomy: Choices Time flexibility Alternative ways to reach goals Participation in decision making Relatedness: De-emphasize competition Emphasis on effort Collaboration Social construction How could YOU support each of these?
Academic Motivation Scale [white] 27 What did this instrument tell you about your intrinsic/extrinsic balance? Did it seem accurate? Why/why not? Comments?
#3. Goal Orientations Beliefs individuals hold about the purposes of learning Why we learn For whom How success is achieved IMPACT: How we approach challenging tasks Two basic types of goals Mastery Goals Performance Goals
Underlying Theories of Intelligence Entity Theories Incremental Theories
Performance: Goal is to gain positive judgments & avoid negative judgments of ability [Prove] Mastery Goal is to increase ability and personal competence [Improve] Goal Orientation
Theory of Intelligence Entity Performance: Intelligence Goal is to gain is a fixedpositive judgments trait& avoid negative judgments of ability [Prove] IncrementalMastery IntelligenceGoal is to increase isability and personal malleablecompetence [Improve]
Typical Behavior Entity Performance: Helplessness Intelligence Goal is to gain Avoid risk is a fixedpositive judgments Give up easily trait& avoid negative Make excuses judgments of ability [Prove] Incremental Mastery Effort IntelligenceGoal is to increase Seek challenge isability and personal Persist malleablecompetence Take responsibility [Improve] Problem Solve
Goal Orientations Beliefs: Compare/Contrast Competence develops through effort & practice Enjoyment of challenging tasks Easy tasks viewed as boring Effort competence More intrinsic motivation to learn Use of learning strategies for deep comprehension Self-evaluative Errors are viewed as useful Failure can be informational Teacher seen as resource/guide Which learner do you prefer? Why? Competence—you have it or you don’t! Avoidance of challenging tasks Easy tasks are desirable Effort = low competence More extrinsic motivation Reliance on rote learning Comparison of self to others Errors seen as failures Failure = low ability Teacher viewed as judge, rewarder, and punisher Mastery Orientation Performance Orientation
Quadrants High Mastery High Performance Low Mastery High Performance High Mastery Low Performance Low Mastery Low Performance Mastery Orientation HIGH LOW HIGH LOW Performance Orientation
Goals Inventory [yellow] Eliminate #s 7, 9, & 13 Mark the following with “P”: 2, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17, 18 Mark the following with “M” 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 14, 16 Add P scores and divide by 7 Add M scores and divide by 8
37 Students with a strong mastery orientation are more successful learners, REGARDLESS of whether performance orientation is high or low. Implications?
#4: Self-Efficacy 38 Beliefs about the degree of “effect” we can have on a learning situation. Think about a situation in which you perceive you can have an impact. Now think of one where you don’t believe you can have much. Compare your motivation to engage in each of these settings Context and topic specific Perception!
High self-efficacy learners Low self-efficacy learners Task Orientation Accept challenging tasksAvoid challenging tasks Effort Expend high effort when faced with challenging tasks Expend low effort when faced with challenging tasks Persistence Persist when goals are initially reached Give up when goals are not initially reached Beliefs Believe they will succeed Control stress and anxiety when goals not met Believe they are in control of the environment Focus on feelings of incompetency Experience anxiety and depression when goals not met Believe they are not in control of their environment Strategy Use Discard unproductive strategies Persist with unproductive strategies Performance Perform higher than low-efficacy students of equal ability Perform lower than high-efficacy students of equal ability
FactorExample Past Performance Past success in solving algebra equations increases individuals’ beliefs in their capability to solve other algebra problems. Modeling Observing others successfully solving algebra equations increases observers’ beliefs in their capabilities to solve them. Verbal Persuasion A teacher comments, “I know you will be able to solve these equations,” increases the likelihood that individuals will engage in demanding tasks, and if successful, belief in their capabilities to solve them increase. Psychological State Thoughts, such as “I can’t do this stuff,” takes up mental energy. Success is reduced, and efficacy decreases. Factors Influencing Self-Efficacy
Increase students’ awareness of the self-efficacy concept Use expert and inexpert modeling…scaffold so that students can understand developing expertise Provide feedback… that functions to help students develop expertise through analysis of own performance specific Build self-efficacy rather than reduce expectations reductions undermine efficacy Encourage self-regulation students take control of their learning process Implications: Improving Self-Efficacy
Who or what is responsible for our successes and failures? Are these... Internal or External ? Stable or Unstable? Controllable or Uncontrollable? Locus of control Learned helplessness #5. Causal Attributions
3 Issues in Attribution Theory Attribution Theory Locus of control: ▪ Where does control lie? ▪ Internal vs. external ▪ “I” vs. “They” thinking Stability: ▪ Stable vs. unstable ▪ Does outcome change or fluctuate? Controllability: ▪ Controllable vs. un- controllable ▪ Are any variables with- in my control?
Effort Ability Task difficulty Luck Possible Attributions Which is most “adaptive” and why?
Controllability · is any of this within my control? InternalExternal Stable Unstable Ability EffortLuck Task Difficulty Locus of Control Stability I can’t really control this. This is something I have control over! This isn’t up to me. This is completely out of my control.
Discuss effects of attributions with students leading to emphasis on the role of effort Help students focus on controllable causes in order to increase task engagement, persistence, and performance Consider alternative causes of success and failure identify and help students modify Be mindful of inadvertent “low-ability cues” which undermine both self-efficacy and attributions to controllable factors How do we do these things? Implications: Improving Student Attributions
Specific to Locus of Control Dimension Only Scoring-- Eliminate item 8 Reverse score #s 1, 3, 4, 9, 12 [1=5; 2=4; 3=3] Add your points, divide by 11 Higher the score, the more EXTERNAL the perceived locus of control Did this instrument describe you accurately? Why/why not? contrast to Behavior Modification] contrast to Behavior Modification] Attribution Inventory [green]
5. The “Hope” Construct Agency [“the Will”] Pathways [“the Ways”] aka study strategies] Connect this construct with Self Regulation Self Efficacy Self Determination
The Hope Scale Eliminate 3, 5, 7, 11, Add for Pathways Score 1, 4, 6, 8 Divide by 4 Add for Agency Score 2, 9, 10, 12 Divide by 4
Synthesis 52 What ideas link each of these constructs? How can you summarize the implications for classroom practice? Specifically, what can you implement in your classroom? What do you need to think more about? What questions do you still have?