Presentation on theme: "Weight Loss, Weight Gain and Weight Maintenance. Energy Units calorie –Basic energy/heat unit –The amount of heat necessary to raise temp of 1 gram of."— Presentation transcript:
Energy Units calorie –Basic energy/heat unit –The amount of heat necessary to raise temp of 1 gram of water 1° C. Kilocalorie (kcal) –Basic food energy unit –The amount of heat necessary to raise temp of 1 kg water 1° C –1 kcal = 1000 calories Calorie is same as kcal
Body Fatness Minimal Fat –Males: ~3% –Females: ~12% Ideal Fatness –Varies with individual –Varies with type of athlete
Basic Energy Equation If Energy Consumed is = Energy Expended, then weight is stable If Energy Consumed is >Energy Expended, then weight is gained If Energy Consumed is < Energy Expended, then weight is lost
Energy Storage in the Body Excess energy in any form is stored –Excess CHO is stored as fat –Excess Pro is stored as fat –Excess Fat is stored as fat Must distinguish excess energy from energy necessary for muscular contaction –Liver glycogen –Muscle glycogen –Muscle triglycerides
SourceGramsKcals Blood Glucose520 Liver Glycogen100400 Muscle Glycogen4001600 Muscle Triglycerides3002700 Adipose Triglycerides10,00090,000 Energy Stores in Normal, Sedentary Adults
Food and Weight Loss The most important factor is the total number of calories consumed Carbohydrates and protein consumed in excess of the body’s need will result in the excess being stored as fat. It is more efficient for the body to store fat as fat than to store carbos or protein as fat. –95% of excess fat calories are stored as fat –75-80% of excess carbo/protein is stored as fat
Glycemic Index (GI) The GI reflects the rate of digestion and absorption of CHO GI = Blood glucose area after test food Blood glucose area after reference food X 100
Glycemic Index Measure of how rapidly CHO is digested and becomes available in the blood Highest value assigned to glucose (100) The higher the value, the faster it gets into the blood The higher the value, the greater the insulin response
Problem with Chronic Hyperinsulemia Promotes fat storage “wears out” the pancreas Promotes Type II Diabetes
Characteristics of Fat That Make it Preferential to CHO as a Storage Substrate More than 2X as much energy per gram –1 gm fat = 9 kcals –1 gm CHO = 4 kcals Not hydrated when stored –For every gram of glycogen stored, 3 grams of water are stored. –Average person would have 50-75 additional pounds as water if fat were hydrated to the same extent as water.
Exercise and Weight Loss Regular aerobic exercise may increase BMR More calories can be expended doing aerobic exercise than any other kind The harder you exercise and the longer you exercise, the more calories you expend.
Misconceptions about Exercise and Weight Loss To loose fat from a certain area of the body, exercise that particular area Exercising at a lower intensity will reduce fat more than exercising at a higher intensity
Tips for Effective Weight Loss Weight loss is a long term project. There are no easy short cuts. Reduce fat in your diet to less than 30% of total calories Reduce total calories by no more than 25% of calories required to maintain weight Increase caloric expenditure and REE with regular aerobic exercise???
Weight Gain Adequate caloric intake –2500-3500 kcal per pound of muscle –1 pound of gain per week or 400-500 kcals per day Adequate protein intake (0.8-2 g/kg) Adequate stimulus of skeletal muscle Adequate recovery for muscle Adequate hormonal environment –Timing of protein intake –Supplements