Membrane Carbohydrates Carbohydrates on extracellular surface made in ER and modified in Golgi Cell-to-Cell recognition Oligosaccharides on external side of plasma membrane Function as markers ABO blood group antigens Attached to proteins or lipids
Movement of Materials Across the Cell Membrane 1) Passive Transport - –The cell doesn’t need to expend energy to do 2) Active Transport –Cells need to expend energy to do it (ATP)
Particles in Motion Particles of all states of matter (s,l,g) in constant motion = Brownian motion Particles will move so they are evenly spread out (dynamic equilibrium) Particles continue to move due to ambient heat
Passive Transport 3 Types: 1) Diffusion 2) Osmosis (Diffusion of Water) 3) Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion The net movement of materials from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. –Through pores in the membrane –(Hi to Low) Down its concentration gradient Paul Lewis – Simple Diffusion Demonstration http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/people/plewis/applets/Diffusio n/diffusion.html Click on the simulation to view it.
Permeability of Lipid Bilayer Hydrophobic molecules can dissolve in the lipid bilayer, and cross easily Hydrophilic molecules, such as ions and polar molecules cannot easily cross
Concentration Gradients The difference between concentrations on either side of a membrane If the particles are charged (+ or -), such as H +, Na +, K +, Cl -, the gradient is an electrochemical one Gradients have POTENTIAL ENERGY!
Passive Transport is Diffusion Across a Membrane Down a Concentration Gradient The cell does not expend energy of its own
Dynamic Equilibrium Diffusion will continues until particles become evenly spread out The concentration on both sides of the membrane become the same Some particles may not be able to reach equilibrium Paul Lewis Simulation http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/people/plewis/applets/Osmosis/osmosis.html Click on the simulation to view it.
Osmosis Diffusion of water across cell membrane –Water moves from where it is in higher concentration to an area where it is in lower concentration –*If you have a High conc. of dissolved substances, you will have a LOW conc. of water! –“osmos” = Greek word for pushing
Facilitated Diffusion Passive transport of substances across a membrane by means of channel and carrier transport proteins Hi to low concentration Takes place both directions (In or Out) No energy is expended
Factors Affecting Rate of Diffusion > Temperature = faster diffusion > Concentration = faster diffusion > Size of particles: smaller particles = faster diffusion
Active Transport Requires ATP or another energy source such as an Na + or H + gradient Always used to concentrate materials against the normal direction of diffusion Ex. Roots collect minerals Cells build up gradients: Concentration and electrochemical Pump mechanisms: Proton, Na + /K +
Active Transport (con’d) Uses energy to change shape of membrane proteins to allow substances to pass thru Moves materials from Low to High conc. One direction only - like turnstiles Exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis
Gotta love the Greeks! ISOS=equal HYPO=below/under HYPER= above/over Prefix refers to the amount of solute outside the cell!
ISOTONIC SOLUTIONS Concentration of dissolved substances in solution is the same as concentration of dissolved substances inside the cell. No net water movement Dynamic Equilibrium
Isotonic Importance Cells usually exist in isosmotic surroundings (increased salinity in lakes can kill the animals there!) Immunizations are isotonic solutions so they do not damage the cells by gain or loss of water. I.V. solutions must be isotonic too.
HYPOTONIC SOLUTIONS Concentration of dissolved substances is lower in solution outside the cell than concentration inside the cell. There is more water outside the cell than inside. Water moves into the cell
Cells immersed in hypotonic solutions EX: In animal cells, the pressure inside cell increases causing the cells to swell and sometimes burst! EX: In plant cells, the rigid cell wall prevents bursting, but the cells become more firm.
Osmotic Pressure (Pressure Potential Ψp) Pressure created when water enters a cell pushing against the cell membrane and cell wall Animal cells can’t build up a Pressure Potential – They enlarge and burst Plant cell walls prevent plant cells from bursting = turgor pressure Water potential = 0 bars at equilibrium
Endocytosis The cell can engulf large particles that are too large to fit through pores in the cell membrane
Exocytosis Large particles (waste, indigestable material) are exported from cell
Critical Thinking….. How does salting the roads in winter, sometimes kill plants next to the road? Why do marine fish constantly drink saltwater? Why do freshwater fish produce large quantities of dilute urine?
Water Potential Ψ = Ψp + Ψs Ψ is 0 (bars or Mpa) for pure water open to the atmosphere Inversely proportional to solute content Directly proportional to pressure Measures the relative tendency of water to move from one location to another Systems move to lower free energy
Ψp = Pressure Potential Physical pressure on a solution Pressure of the cell wall - Turgor Negative pressure is called Tension Ψp = 0 for water open to the atmosphere F.Y.I: Approximately 1 bar = 1 atm. = 101.3 kPa =.1 MPa
At Dynamic Equilibrium Ψ = 0 No free energy Ψp cancels Ψs