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NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport CrossTour Fair 2012 26 - 30 January 2012 “The Danubian AL-TOUR-native”

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Presentation on theme: "NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport CrossTour Fair 2012 26 - 30 January 2012 “The Danubian AL-TOUR-native”"— Presentation transcript:

1 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport CrossTour Fair January 2012 “The Danubian AL-TOUR-native”

2 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport "Alternative cross-border tourism: cycle tourism“ AL-TOUR-native TOURISM: TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE CROSS- BORDER REGIONAL / LOCAL DEVELOPMENT? Pieter Piket PhD NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands Tourism Academy CrossTour Fair January 2012 “The Danubian AL-TOUR-native”

3 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 3 Contents  Alternative Tourism  Slow Tourism  Cycle Tourism  European cycle tourism market: Cycle holiday / overnight trips and day trips  Direct expenditures European cycle tourism  The Economic Impact Model  Case Study 1 D-Route 3 (Germany)  Case Study 2 EuroVelo Route  Case Study 3 Iron Curtain Trail  Sustainable Cycle Tourism  Suggestions for Future Model Input and Refinements

4 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 4 Alternative Tourism Alternative tourism combines tourist products or individual tourist services, different from the mass tourism by means of supply, organization and the human resources involved. It includes rural, ecotourism, adventure (biking, horseback riding, snowshoeing, ski mountaineering, rafting, diving, caving, climbing), thematic tourism – connected with the cultural and historical heritage, justice and solidarity tourism, the esoteric, religion, wine, traditional cuisine, ethnography and traditional music and handicrafts.

5 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 5 Slow Travel / Tourism  Holiday travel involving shorter trips (distance) and longer stays (time) where air transport is rejected in favour of less environmentally damaging forms of overland transport which become incorporated as part of the holiday experience.  Response of the tourism industry to climate change concerns.  "Rediscover the joy of slow travel, to experience the transition of landscape, people, culture, food, drinks and language, to move through the world and not just over and above it."

6 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 6 Cycle Tourism Cycle tourism is an excellent vehicle to “promote the development of sustainable, responsible and high-quality tourism” (EU Commission 2010) in Europe, e.g. by “minimising resource use and pollution at tourism destinations” and “addressing the environmental impact of transport linked to tourism” (EU Commission 2007)

7 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 7 Existing Infrastructure Europe Recreational & touristic cycle routes KmMi Germany76,00047,000 Netherlands50,00031,000 National Cycle Network (UK)10,5006,500 Veloland Schweiz (Switzerland)8,5005,300 Denmark12,5007,800 Envisaged EuroVelo network (EU); ~65% is already in existence 66,00041,000

8 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 8 Trend: (inter)national route networks

9 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 9 Trips and Expenditures Cycle Holiday or Overnight trips Day tripsDirect expenditures Dutch cycle tourism (2008)1.3 million35 million€565 million Veloland Schweiz (2008)230, million€114 million German cycle tourism (per year)3.9 million153 million€3.9 billion Total European cycle tourism (per year) 25.6 million2.8 billion€54 billion Sources: Stichting Landelijk Fietsplatform 2009, Utiger & Rikus 2010, BMWi 2009, EP 2009

10 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 10 Direct Expenditures  Weighted averages based on 13 regional and national cycle tourism studies (North-Western Europe)  Cycle tourists spend €53 per day on average  similar to average tourist, based on accommodation type used (German case)  Cycle tourists spend € 353 per trip on average based on average length of stay of 6.6 days  Day excursion cyclists spend almost €16 per day on average  similar to average tourist in rural areas (German case)  High share of spending goes directly to local economies, often in rural areas

11 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 11 Economic Impact Model  Testing of various relationships between a multitude of variables (like GDP/km², population/km ², nights/km² and beds/route-km) and number of cycle holidays and day trips  Geographically based on the EU NUTS (Eurostat Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) 3 (= small level) regions  Number of cycle tourists dependent on bed density of all accommodation types in the respective NUTS 3 region(s)  Number of day cyclists dependent on population density in the respective NUTS 3 region(s)

12 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 12 Economic Impact Model  Cycle holidays or overnight trips: trips/km per year = f (beds/km²) = x beds/km² direct expenditures = f(€ per trip) using weighted averages of (daily) spending (slide 10)  Cycle day trips: trips/km per year = f (population/km²) = 4.63 x population/km² direct expenditures = f(€ per trip) using weighted averages of (daily) spending (slide 10)

13 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 13 Economic Impact Model

14 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 14 Case Study 1: D-Route 3 (Germany) Federal StateDistanceHoliday TripsDay TripsTotal Federal State - Total KmTrips (x1,000) Expend. (Mio. €) Trips (x1,000) Expend. (Mio. €) Expend. (Mio. €) NRW Niedersachsen Sachsen-Anhalt Brandenburg Berlin Total (incl. Berlin) Total (excl. Berlin)

15 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 15 Case Study 1: D-Route 3 – Niedersachsen Federal State/ District DistanceHoliday TripsDay TripsTotal Federal State (FS) / NUTS 3 District (D) KmTrips (x1,000) Expend. (Mio. €) Trips (x1,000) Expend. (Mio. €) Expend. (Mio. €) NRW (FS)30257,520,3409,16,727,0 Niedersachsen (FS)12853,318,880,11,320,1 Holzminden (D)243,21,112,70,21,3 Northeim (D)476,12,225,50,42,6 Goslar (D)5744,015,542,00,716,2

16 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 16 Case Study 2: EuroVelo Route Per year:  12.5 million holiday-makers = 82.5 million holiday cycle days  Total direct expenditures from holiday-makers of €4.4 billion.  33.3 million day trips  €0.54 billion of direct day trip expenditures

17 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 17 Case Study 2: EuroVelo Route 14 Routes: Route 6: The Rivers Route guage=en Route 13: The Iron Curtain Trail

18 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 18 Case Study 2: EuroVelo Route

19 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 19 Case Study 3: Iron Curtain Trail  If developed as a part of the EuroVelo network: –950,000 holiday trips per year –3.3 million day excursions per year –€390 million in direct expenditures per year  Uneven distribution over countries due to: –Distance of the trail per country –Large variations in tourism infrastructure (bed density) & population density

20 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 20 Case Study 3: Iron Curtain Trail CountryDistHoliday tripsDay excursionTotal KmTrips (x1,000) Exp. (mill. €) Trips (x1,000) Exp. (mill. €) Exp. (mill. €) Serbia Rumania Bulgaria Macedonia Greece Turkey

21 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 21 Sustainable Cycle Tourism  Low energy use and emissions –High public transport and overland share –Shorter average return distance Origin/Destination transport –Lower accommodation emissions (less in hotel) –Emissions cycle holidays < other holidays  High eco-efficiency: Average per day spending similar to average tourist, and more focused in local rural economies, combined with low emissions  But environmental advantage could be lost when long-haul cycle holidays increase

22 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 22 Sustainable Cycle Tourism  Importance of good public transport integration

23 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 23 Some Conclusions  Cycle tourists’ daily spending is comparable to that of other tourists, specifically in rural areas  Cycle tourism can provide a significant contribution to rural regional and local economies that have not enjoyed mainstream tourism development  Cycle holidays produce considerably less greenhouse gas emissions than average holidays, due to shorter Origin/Destination distances, high public and overland transport share and low accommodation energy-use

24 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 24 Suggestions for Future Model Input and Refinements  Input from existing Eastern, Central, Southern etc. European cycle routes, away from the Western European focus and taking into account differences in direct expenditures per country and region  Direct expenditures are only a part of the total economic impact: costs, inflation (and local differences), indirect and induced multiplier effects, leakages  Differences in cycle culture (possession and use of bicycles) should make a difference especially with regard to numbers and expenditures of day trippers

25 NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport 25 Information & Suggestions & Contact  NHTV:  CSTT:  Pieter Piket:


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