# Introduction to Human Nutrition Zoology II. A Calorie is: The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram (1ml) of water one degree.

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Introduction to Human Nutrition Zoology II

A Calorie is: The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram (1ml) of water one degree Celsius. Example: it would require 10 calories to raise the temperature of one gram of water 10 degrees Celsius, or 10 calories to raise the temperature of 10 grams of water one degree Celsius.

Metabolism: The Chemical Reactions of Living Organisms When we talk about Metabolism……….we are usually referring to the RATE at which the chemical reactions occur within an individual……….such as a “Fast Metabolism” or a “Slow Metabolism”.

To determine the number of calories you need to maintain your present weight…….. Take your present weight and multiply it by 15. Wt. (in lbs.) ______ X 15 = ______ cal. Example: 150 lbs. X 15 = 2,475 calories a day to maintain your present weight.

To Gain or Lose Weight Gaining, or losing one pound of Lean Body Mass (LBM) requires a change of 3,500 calories in your daily diet. Two pounds would be equal to 7,000 calories, 3,500 calories for each pound. If you increase your intake 1,000 calories a day for one week (7,000 total calories)….. Your should gain 2 lbs………If you decrease your intake 1,000 calories a day for one week (7,000 total calories)….. Your should lose 2 lbs.

Weight Gain, or Loss should NEVER exceed Two pounds a week.

Target Weight Weight your desire To achieve your target weight you adjust your daily caloric intake to: Target weight X 15 ______ = ______ target calories/day Example 1: if your target weight is 200 lbs. you need 3,000 calories/day Example 2: if your target weight is 150 lbs. then you need 2,250 calories/day

The Role of Exercise in Diets Exercise requires energy……. The energy used is in the form of calories….. (The same calories you get from your diet)……… so…….. As you exercise you use up your calories. If, in a day, you expend more calories than you consume… you can possibly lose weight (not that simple)… if you consume more than you expend… you can possibly gain weight.

Total Caloric Intake in a Day Total Caloric intake equal to: The Total number of calories consumed minus the total number of calories used (expended) in physical exercise. Example: weight : 150 lbs. + you run 5 miles at an average pace of 5 mph for 1 hr…… Your Caloric Expenditure = 400 calories (I got this information from an internet site)….So…. You eat 1,500 calories and expend 400 calories exercising… Total Caloric Intake for that day is 1,500 – 400 = 1,100 calories

Determining Your Daily Caloric Intake to gain or lose weight If you want to lose weight you should reduce your daily intake by 1,000 calories/day….. That would be 7,000 calories/week and would be equivalent to 2 lbs. a week…. You should lose 2 lbs that week. If you want to gain weight you should increase your daily intake by 1,000 calories/day….. That would be 7,000 calories/week and would be equivalent to 2 lbs. a week. …. You should gain 2 lbs that week.

Putting Diet and Exercise Together If you want to lose weight you should reduce your daily intake by 1,000 calories/day…. You can accomplish that one of two ways……… one; reduce your caloric intake by 1,000 calories/day or, two (for example) reduce your caloric intake 500 calories and exercise a sufficient amount to expend 500 calories…. Both approaches accomplish the same thing… 1,000 fewer calories.

Putting Diet and Exercise Together Gaining weight is a little tougher. Most people, at your age, who want to gain weight are involved in athletics. Those “athletics” use up at lot of calories. Example: You want to weigh 200 lbs… so you need 3,000 calories/day, and you expend 1,200 calories/day while exercising. You eat 3,000 calories a day right??? That’ll do it! NO…. Your total caloric intake for the day is only 1,800 calories.. If you weigh over 120 lbs…. You will LOSE weight. What you really need to do is eat 4,200 calories a day…. 3,000 calories under normal conditions and, an additional 1,200 calories to make up for the calories burned while exercising. Now all you have to do is eat the right foods.

What your diet should be: (for a typical body, with a typical metabolism) 60 % of your diet should be Carbohydrates (mostly starches) 20% of your diet should be Proteins 20% of your diet should be Fats

Determining the number of calories/day for each food group Let’s say your target weight is 3,000 calories. Carbohydrates = 3,000 X 0.6 = 1,800 calories/day… this is 60% of you diet. Proteins = 3,000 X 0.2 = 600 calories/day Fats = 3,000 X 0.2 = 600 calories/day

Determining the number of grams/day for each food group Each gram of carbohydrates has an energy equivalence of 4 calories. You need 1,800 calories of carbohydrates…..1,800/4 = 450 grams/day

Each gram of protein has an energy equivalence of 4 calories. You need 600 calories of protein..…..600/4 = 150 grams/day

Each gram of fat has an energy equivalence of 9 calories. You need 600 calories of protein..…..600/9 = 67 grams/day

Diet Summary for a 3,000 calorie diet 450 grams carbohydrates 120 grams protein 67 grams fats

Carbohydrates Supply Energy Avoid Sugars…. Sugars provide instant energy. However, the blood sugar level drops rapidly creating a craving for more sweet food along with fatigue and possibly nervousness, dizziness and headache. You want Starches Starch is stored as Glycogen… and can be converted to sugars as you need them.

Proteins used to build tissues and enzymes Your body makes most of the 20 amino acids you’ll ever need. The amino acids your body doesn’t must be supplied by diet. These unsupplied 8 amino acids are called the “Essential” amino acids. Foods that contain all 20 of the amino acids are called ”Complete” proteins…. Egg whites and gelatin are great protein sources. Your body will assimilate proteins every 4 hours… so… if you want to gain weight you should eat every 4 hours (or close to it)

Fats energy source, required for vitamin usage Saturated – solid at room temperatures Unsaturated – liquid at room temperatures Excess amounts can lead to various heart diseases and the possibility of obesity, along with diabetes. Can trigger a slowing of metabolism… leading to more weight gain.

Vitamins & Minerals Not an energy source!!!! If you feel you need extra vitamins and minerals, and I’m not sure why you would, take 1 “one-a-day” vitamin each day…. Too many people use the MEGA vitamin packs…. Their urine glows a bright yellow… that’s because they are losing most of the vitamins they consumed.

Fluid Replacement as you exercise you lose water and electrolytes (salts) in the form of sweat. The best fluid replacement is Water. ** “The colder the water, the faster it is absorbed” A great option to water is a drink called “Quick kick” (developed at the US Olympic Training Center) 1 tablespoon lemon extract + 1 quart cold water

Electrolyte Replacement Gatorade, Powerade, etc………. are designed to replace Sodium and Potassium…. However, they contain 4-5 times more sugar than you need…. That makes these drinks undesirable….. If you dilute these drinks, 4 parts – 1 part drink, you will better off.

Salt Tablets?? You Gotta be Kidding!!!! NO WAY

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