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Standardization of physics exercises Dynamical generation of data J. Parellada Facultat de Física Universitat de Barcelona Diagonal 645 08028 Barcelona SPAIN joanpa@ecm.ub.es UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA

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1.Introduction Rationale Classification: DC; LOM; CEN-ISSS 2.QTI Objectives and tags 3.Our proposals New tags: Dynamical generation of data Approaches: Global and Modular Schema for dynamical generation of data UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA

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Introduction Rationale: Exercises as a learning tool The review complexity Students should be encouraged (to try) to solve exercises Is it possible to set up an automatic procedure? How can the personal work be reassured? UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA Exercises as learning objects: Classification DC LOM Extensions to LOM CEN-ISSS Vocabularies

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QTI Nomenclature Assesment-Section-Item Single o multiple response Inside Item Presentation Material Response type : LID; String; Numerical, XY, Group Renderization Material Renderization type : Choice, Hotspot, Slider, FIB Response processing Response condition conditionvar displayfeedback Itemfeedback Granularity at section level No problem set UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA

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Problem as QTI instance UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA The problem structure General statement : Normally includes:text, graphs, drawings,..... physical magnitudes with numerical values and units mathematical expression Sequentially ordered questions Question types:numerical scalar or vector numerical with accompanying unit mathematical expression single or multiple choice free form text Hot spot grouping and ordering

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Problem as QTI instance UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA The problem structure General statement : Normally includes:text, graphs, drawings,..... physical magnitudes with numerical values and units mathematical expression Sequentially ordered questions Question types:numerical scalar or vector numerical with accompanying unit mathematical expression single or multiple choice free form text Hot spot grouping and ordering

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New Response types UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA Vectors : Origin Hot spot rendering Coordinate system Mathematical expression : Data introduction MathML Expression comparison Physical magnitude Multiple response type numerical + single choice numerical + string parsed string (to split between a number and its unit) Equivalence between different answers. Conversion factors Precision issue Rendering

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New Response types UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA Rendering Example A car runs at 65 km/h. What distance will it travel in 50 minutes

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New Response Type tag magnitud UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA Schema

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Respcondition example UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA km m miles yards 4 54.2 54.1 hours lux 4 4 54.1 54.2 Wrong units Please, write more digits Too many digits!!! Wrong numerical answer!. Congratulations, right answer!!!

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New sequencing tag: UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA Displayfeedback inside an item Problem (section) have questions (items) QTI ASI Selection and ordering specification version 1.2 Conditional selection on Item Outcome/response Being studied to break sequential ordering Empty tag with linkrefid attribute................................................. Example

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Dynamical generation of variables UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA Numerical values data is part of text, normally inside ( | ) Numerical results are inside Tags can be redefined to include a PI instruction that, at code level, replaces its value by the value’s value previously defined A whole set of tags to define the variables should have to be introduced into QTI specification The processing code should be able to work out everything Example A car runs at km/h. What distance will it travel in minutes? This is what should be done, but

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Dynamical generation of variables at run time UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA Example A car runs at v km/h. What distance will it travel in t minutes? v = 65 t = 50 v = 90 t = 40 A car runs at 65 km/h. What distance will it travel in 50 minutes? The result is a normal QTI instance able to be understood by any QTI aware code The data file can be hand defined or computed by any code in any language The sampling and text processing is very simple The data file can be defined and stored or generated on the fly

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Schema for the dynamical generation of variables UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA

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Schema for the dynamical generation of variables UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA

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Example for the dynamical generation of variables UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA A car runs at km/h minutes 70 95 2 40,45,50,55,65 2 A plane flights at miles/h minutes 500 600 3 55,65,85 2 A snail creeps at cm/minute hours 9 18 2 0.6, 0.8, 1.2 2 1

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Development UNIVERITAT DE BARCELONA A group of 8 physics’ professors are preparing 8*7 (?) problems in 8 different areas A PHP code is being adapted to read the XML instance A XML file with all(?) units is being built A script to run math expressions with Mathematica is planned Support This work is funded by a grant from the Catalan Goverment MQD2002 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!!

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