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AT/OT/PT Collaborative Problem Solving By Cricket Rizzo, MS, OTRL, ATP Westmoreland Intermediate Unit & Kendra Bittner, MEd, SoSE,ATAC Allegheny Intermediate.

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Presentation on theme: "AT/OT/PT Collaborative Problem Solving By Cricket Rizzo, MS, OTRL, ATP Westmoreland Intermediate Unit & Kendra Bittner, MEd, SoSE,ATAC Allegheny Intermediate."— Presentation transcript:

1 AT/OT/PT Collaborative Problem Solving By Cricket Rizzo, MS, OTRL, ATP Westmoreland Intermediate Unit & Kendra Bittner, MEd, SoSE,ATAC Allegheny Intermediate Unit

2 Housekeeping Feel free to ask questions as they come to you We will take a break mid-session, but feel free to move around

3 “Technology is a tool that serves a set of educational goals, and if we don’t think about what we want the technology for first, we end up with technology-driven solutions that have very little impact in the lives of children and in our educational system.” Dr. Linda Roberts, former director of the Office of Educational Technology, U.S. Dept. of Education

4 AT Definition IDEA defines Assistive Technology as both a “device” and a “service”.

5 AT Device “Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.” (34 C.F.R. §300.5)

6 AT Service: “Any services that directly assist in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device.” These services (e.g. acquiring, customizing, coordinating, training) imply many tasks for team members in the implementation of AT.

7 Assistive Technology Legislation IDEA 2004 (34 CFR Parts 300 and 301 ) Early Intervention Act (PL-99-336) Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988 (PL-100-407) Americans with Disabilities Act (PL-101- 336) Entitlement Legislation: –Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (PL-93-112, as amended) –Rehabilitation Act Amendments

8 When to consider AT During the IEP/IFSP process When the need arrives for physical access, communication assistance, and cognitive support When a disability impacts the performance or potential of a person in any of several areas: –Play –Accessing environments –Communication –Writing –Accessing print and auditory information

9 When to consider AT When progress is flat or negative in direction Upon team request As early as possible If someone is asking this question in the first place

10 When to consider AT IDEA does not require a formalized implementation plan outside of the IEP. Best practice is considered when it is systematic and collaborative. Refer to your local entity to discuss the procedure and to gain additional guidance.

11 AT Assessment is… a flexible, collaborative decision- making process in which teams of families, professionals, and friends repeatedly revise their decisions and reach consensus about the ever- changing abilities, needs, and expectations of the person with a disability. (Adapted from S. Bagnato – Children’s Team Work)

12 How is the AT assessment conducted? Dynamic Multimodal –Inventory –Interview –Observation –Formal Testing –Informal Testing Assessment should focus on features and strategies rather than on a specific device Matches abilities, needs, and expectations to AT features

13 Feature Match: Abilities, Needs and Expectations Daily needs AT history Individual & family input Cognition Language Sensory issues Motor issues Life transitions

14 Multidisciplinary Evaluation In the collaborative team approach, it is assumed that no one person or profession has an adequate knowledge base or sufficient expertise to execute all functions associated with providing services. (S.W. Blackstone, 1992)

15 SETT Framework Student What are the student’s needs? Environment Where are the needs noted? Who teaches or supports the student in these settings? Task What must the student do to meet lesson or IEP goals? What do peers do in comparison? Tools What no-tech, low-tech, and high-tech tools have been used or considered?

16 Multidisciplinary Evaluation Information about the student in regards to the SETT framework includes: What we know What we need to know What are the barriers What are the areas of concern What level is the student participating educationally, physically, socially, and technologically

17 AT Assessment - Determination Determination and implementation of assistive technology is based on data. –Formal and informal assessment data guide initial decision-making and planning for AT implementation. –Student performance is monitored while the assistive technology is integrated into the students daily and curriculum activities.

18 AT – Written Plan Following IEP development and the determination that AT is being considered, all those involved in implementation work together to develop a written action plan that provides detailed information about how the AT will be used in specific educational settings, what will be done and who will do it.

19 AT - Written Plan AT is a not a goal in and of itself AT is a tool that can be used to assist an individual to access and achieve functional goals and objectives Emphasis should be placed on the needs of the individual and the features that are required, not on specific names of equipment (J. Marquette, PennTech) AT should be considered for the current needs, developing skills, and future academic/communicative demands.

20 Trialing of assistive technology is suggested to determine if the technology supports student progress.

21 Equipment Trials Team Consensus – Equipment trials and timelines Emphasis on meaningful, motivating activities –Activities should reflect key environments –Use should be consistent Careful collection and review of data, outcomes, & recommendations Closure through team decision- making

22 Acquisition of Trial Equipment District or IU inventory PaTTAN Short Term Loan Device lending libraries –PIAT –CIL –Organizations –Schools Low-tech and no-tech solutions Manufacturer lease or rental Purchase with a trial period agreement Purchase of less expensive items

23 AT Assessment - Integration Assistive Technology … is adjusted to support student progress. spans environments. is used when and where it is needed to facilitate the student's access to, and mastery of, the curriculum. may facilitate active participation in educational activities, assessments, extracurricular activities, and typical routines.

24 AT Assessment – Responsibility Persons supporting the student across all environments in which the assistive technology is expected to be used All persons working with the student should know their roles and responsibilities, be able to support the student using the assistive technology All persons should share the implementation of the plan. Bottom Line: Share the wealth!

25 AT Implementation AT is a process that is on going through out the student’s life. AT is used via: In-house equipment Low-tech and no-tech solutions District purchase Family purchase Insurance/Medical Access

26 Areas for Evaluation Seating and Positioning Augmentative Alternative Communication (AAC) Computer Access Electronic Aids to Daily Living

27 Seating and Positioning

28 The PELVIS is “where it’s at…” –Proximal stability leads to distal mobility

29 Seating and Positioning What to consider during a seating and positioning assessment –How will the wheelchair be transported? –Where will the wheelchair be charged? –Accessibility for the wheelchair within the educational environment Environment is which the mobility device will be utilized –Entrances, surface materials, doors and doorways, path of clearance, turning radius, location in the classroom, work space (height, space needs for books, etc.), bathrooms, cafeteria, elevator (key), chair lift –Use/develop a “Mobility Checklist” Fire Drill/Emergency Plan – Notify local authorities

30 Seating and Positioning –Is there or could there be a need for integrated controls? –Is there or could there be a need for mounting a device? –Is there a need for changes in positioning? Seating/positioning in different locations i.e. WC, chair, stander, beanbag, floor Tilt and/or recline for weight shifts, cathing, autonomic dysreflexia, etc. –Wheelchair evaluations are usually not done through the schools but through outside agencies/service providers

31 Seating and Positioning –Need for collaboration between school therapists and outpatient/inpatient therapists and vendors/manufacturers representatives (NRRTS) Parent permission to contact/communicate with other professionals What is possibility for attending “outside” evaluations i.e. The Children’s Institute ?

32 Evaluation of Student’s Skills Cognitive Skills (attention, concentration, ability to follow directions, potential for learning, frustration tolerance) –Do these skills vary depending on the environment i.e. 1:1, small group, classroom Perceptual Skills –Depth perception, figure ground, fitting through a space width Sensory Skills (vision, touch, hearing) –Visual/auditory stimulation/distraction –Tactile interaction with the control interface (CI) Motor Skills (AROM, coordination, strength) –With a power wheelchair, kids will be “driving”…

33 Evaluation of Student's Skills Motor Skills –If unable to use hands, identify alternate anatomic site for control and evaluate that site Hierarchy of control sites: –Hands –Head, forehead, eye, mouth, chin –Feet –Elbow/arm –Knee/leg

34 Control Interfaces for AT Select candidate control interfaces (i.e. joystick, head array) matching the anatomical site available for access (i.e. hands, head to control the interface) Control interfaces vary in terms of: –overall size –how activated: movement, respiration, voice –whether or not they give feedback i.e. auditory, tactile/kinesthetic, visual

35 Wheelchair Cushions

36 Control Interfaces for Powered Mobility

37 Positioning Devices

38 Evaluation of Student's Skills Cognitive Skills (attention, concentration, ability to follow directions, potential for learning, frustration tolerance) Perceptual Skills Sensory Skills (vision, touch, hearing) Motor Skills (AROM, coordination, strength) –Look at seating first!!!

39 Evaluation of Student's Skills Motor Skills –If unable to use hands, identify alternate anatomic site for control and evaluate that site Hierarchy of control sites: –Hands –Head, forehead, eye, mouth, chin –Feet –Elbow/arm –Knee/leg

40 Control Interfaces for AT

41 Select candidate control interfaces i.e. various keyboards matching the anatomical site available for access i.e. hands to control the interface Control interfaces vary in terms of: –overall size –how activated: movement, respiration, voice –whether or not they give feedback i.e. auditory, tactile/kinesthetic, visual

42 Direct Selection vs. Indirect Selection At this stage, you can determine if the student will use: –direct selection –indirect selection

43 Direct Selection user can randomly choose any output directly user identifies a target and goes directly to it at any one time, all outputs are equally available for selection physically -- requires refined, controlled movements, most difficult cognitively -- intuitive, easier

44 Indirect Selection / Scanning intermediate steps involved; thus slower access at any one time, all outputs are not equally available for selection physically -- requires very little motor control cognitively -- requires significant cognitive skills, visual tracking, attention, ability to sequence

45 Directed Scanning hybrid of direct and indirect selection user activates the control interface to select the direction of the scan, when a desired choice is reached, the user sends a signal to select

46 Communication

47 AT and the Purpose to Communicate Communicative functions: –Rejection –Request for social interaction, object, action –Comment (Gleason, 1997)

48 Communication Considerations Does the student have access to communication across environments to convey intentions? Is the communication system functional? Does it take changing communication partners into consideration? Is the language system flexible?

49 AAC - Definition "Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC): 1) The supplementation or replacement of natural speech and/or writing using aided and/or unaided symbols...The use of aided symbols requires a transmission device. 2) The field or area of clinical/educational practice to improve the communication skills of individuals with little or no functional speech." (Lloyd, L.L., Fuller, D.R., & Arvidson, H.H. (1997) Augmentative and Alternative Communication: A handbook of principles and practices. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. pg 524)

50 AAC - Determination How is the use of AAC determined? Assessments Student’s interaction with the world Student’s language level Input from all members of the team Goals, needs, wants to communicate

51 Pragmatic Intent How is the need to communicate demonstrated? –What is the behavior in the absence of language: Eye gaze, vocalization, grabbing, leading, hitting, screaming, drooling, blinking, gesturing

52 Pragmatic Intent How are the needs or message being expressed: –Single sounds/signs –Single words/signs/photos/symbols –Multiple words/signs/photos/symbols –Phrases –Sentences –Timely manner – in context, establish the amount of time, wait time (clock resets at 0 every time someone interrupts); how long it takes to get the message across to the communication partner

53 Language Mode Manual –Sign language – formal, home sign, gesture Verbal –Speech –Vocalizations Written –Symbols –Letters –Words –Sentences

54 Language Level Developmental Language Level –Emergent –Phonological (sounds & sound patterns) –Semantic (relates words to referents & meanings) –Morphological/Syntax (putting words together) –Pragmatic (Competent)

55 Cognitive Development and Communicative Symbolic Use Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget Sensorimotor Stage – The child is beginning the process of learning how to think. She experiences her surroundings through her senses and actions with objects but does not yet have a functional representation of the object. Object Permanence – The child is beginning to learn that things exist even when they are not being experienced. Means-Ends – The child begins to solve problems in different ways other than trial and error. Language Development Pre-symbolic – Reactive behavior, Proactive behavior, intentional, and conventional pre-symbolic language Concrete Symbolic –use of concrete 1:1 correspondence with symbol and the referent Abstract Symbolic/formal symbolic communication (Rowland and Shweigert, US office of Special Education Programs)

56 Building the Language System Functional language in the environments that is meaningful to the student Build language for communication needs by building a solid foundation Generalization of language is impacted by the familiarity of the systems by the professional - collaboration

57 Building the Language System Using common, functional words to build core vocabulary (no, low, mid, high tech options) Moving beyond yes and no and I WANT. Expand core language to use more rich words and messages (two word level – agent + action; MOMMY GO, I GO), phrasing (pre-recorded or invented), sentence building

58 Low Tech AAC Single recordable switch, sequencing switch, paper communication book, talking photo album

59 Mid Tech AAC Icon sequencing or exchange voice output communication aid, paper overlay voice output communication aids

60 Hi Tech AAC Dynamic display voice output communication aids

61 AAC - Features Access Portability Voice output Operating system Display

62 Access – How will the student get the message across? Direct Selection – one step to get the message across: touch enter touch exit stylus switch with one choice eye gaze selection Indirect Selection/Scanning Indirect selection through directed scanning – joystick, mouse, multiple switches Switches – single, dual Visual Auditory Step scanning Inverse scanning (release when your choice is highlight) Row/ Column

63 Portability Features Weight Handle Where is it being transported and by whom? Mounted – wheelchair, table, bed, tray –How will it be mounted ?– apparatus, Dual Lock, Dycem

64 Voice Output None Digitized (recorded by a person) Synthesized (computerized)

65 Operating System Features Communication software Paper grids Linguistic organization Core word Symantic compaction Single word/phrase/sentence building with or without a message window

66 Display Features One hit area to a multiple hit area Visual Scene Number of grids, windows, keys Static or removable Paper or computerized Outerware – Knobs, buttons, and latches Power button Computerized screen – quality of back light (CVI) Pressure to activate Keyguards

67 Computer Access

68 Keyboards Standard –QWERTY –Alphabetic –Dvorak Portable Large Print/Button/ Expanded Miniature/Contracted Keytop Overlays & Keyguards Coded/Alternate Entry Programmable Onscreen Word prediction

69 Standard Keyboards Features –Readily available –Commonplace and familiar –Plug-and-play or freely convertible via operating system QWERTY Dvorak Alphabetic Miniature Considerations –Specialized layouts impact generalization of skill on non-adapted computers –Plug-and-play versus programmed


71 Optimizer Keyboard Optimize key to reduce movement away from keyboard –Mouse control –Number pad QWERTY format

72 Tactile Pro 2.0 Replicates the feel of the old Macintosh keyboard Available in Mac and PC versions USB 2.0 port built into the device Available with a pre-programmed Optimizer button (see previous slide)

73 Trackball Keyboard Standard QWERTY keyboard Integrated pointing device PS/2 keyboard PS/2 or USB trackball

74 Versa Point RF Keyboard Wireless configuration –100 foot range –Line-of-site not required Integrated pointing device Available as a combo with wireless cursor control unit

75 Portable Keyboards Features –Most are standalone word processors –Reduce distractions –May offer add-in functionality Pre-programmed Download SD card –Text shared with computer via wire or wireless connection –Durability –Low power consumption Considerations –Inexpensive in comparison to a laptop –Screen size –Brightness and contrast limits –Limited display fonts and sizes

76 CalcuScribe Portable keyboard Built-in calculator Text display options –4-line –8-line File management system –Folders –Menu structure Wireless beaming to other CalcuScribes for collaboration

77 Dana Portable Keyboard Palm-based –Organization tools –Downloadable software –Laptop-like functionality Large screen Backlight for use in dark rooms Send or Sync

78 Flexible Keyboard Water resistant Low pressure to activate Rollable for storage and transport Available in two heights –Standard (19.6 in) –Short (16.2 in)

79 Folding Keyboard by Matias Full-sized keyboard Integrated number pad with Tab key feature Function key access –Arrow keys –Page navigation –Delete Volume control keys

80 Fusion Keyboard (The Writer) Text-to-speech output Word prediction Split screen vocabulary word lists Pre-programmed writing prompts Rubrics –Basic –Perfect Paragraph –Multi-Paragraph Essay –Six Traits of Writing –Persuasive Essay –Response to Literature –Creative Writing –Build-your-own

81 Neo & Neo 2 Six font choices Capable of running applets –Typing tutor –Word prediction –Quiz software Wired or wireless transfer of text Saves automatically in 8 locations Option for Text2Speech

82 QuickPAD IR & QuickPAD Pro Integrated typing tutor Built-in thesaurus and word prediction Infrared connection via dedicated receiver Password-capable portfolio filing system to organize writing files –Up to 70 pages in 10 separate folders (QuickPAD IR)

83 Large Print/Button (Expanded) Keyboards Features –Color schemes for ease of viewing or identification –Large “target” –Clearer separation between letters on large keys Considerations –Larger footprint –Reduced key set –Visually distinct from traditional keyboards

84 BigKeys LX & Keyboard Plus Standard keyboard footprint One-inch keys LX model –60 keys –Black and white keys Plus model –48 keys –Color keys –Black and white keys Variety of layouts –QWERTY –ABC

85 Clevy Keyboard Vertically aligned keys Keys are four times larger than standard keys Keys colored by function Fewer keys than a standard keyboard Durable – keys are switches, not membranes

86 Large Print Keyboard Standard-sized keyboard Enlarged key font (roughly 3 times standard size) –Black on yellow –Black on ivory –Yellow on black Hot keys for common commands and applications

87 ZoomText Keyboard High-contrast keys –White on black –Yellow on black 16 programmable buttons

88 Miniature (Contracted) Keyboards Features –Reduce “travel” for users with small hand spans or fingers –May be useful when Fatigue is common Range of motion is limited Only one hand is used for key activations Considerations –Key face often features a smaller font than a standard keyboard

89 EZ-Reach Keyboard Flat profile Vertically aligned keys Backspace and Enter are repositioned for access by the forefinger (rather than the little finger)

90 Frogpad Wired and wireless (Bluetooth) configurations Wearable version –PDAs –Handheld devices USB version –Handhelds –Laptops –Desktops Left and right hand models Non-standard key configuration (frequency-based)

91 Half Keyboard Palm-sized Left-hand only Allows user to type with left hand and navigate pointer with right hand

92 Half QWERTY Keyboard Full-sized keyboard QWERTY arrangement –Two-handed typists –Left-handed typists –Right-handed typists

93 Low Profile Keyboard 101 keys Integrated pointer available –Joystick –Trackball Laptop-like feel Lightweight Flat profile (approximately one inch high) Small frame (less than 6”x12”)

94 Magic Wand Keyboard Built-in mouse –11 speeds –Left, right, & double click –Click-drag Accessible with slight head or hand movement –Handheld wand –Mouthstick No force required for activation Small profile (7” x 6” x 0.5”)

95 Space Saver Keyboard 100 keys Narrow design (10.8”x6”) –Keypad, function, and arrow keys above standard alphanumerics Two models –Desk (weighted, 2.55”) –Flat (unweighted, 0.75”) Available with or without integrated touch pad

96 USB Mini Keyboard by Tash Membrane surface Keys less than ½- inch square QWERTY layout Auditory feedback Mouse Mode key for positioning and click functions Adjustable features –Response rate –Key repeat rate –Mouse tracking rate

97 Ergonomic Keyboards Features –Increasingly available (and standard) in school, home, and work environments –Reduce repetitive stress injuries by supporting more natural hand positions –Some models are adjustable Considerations –Not conducive to one-handed typing –May not fit into built-in keyboard trays

98 Contoured Keyboard by Kinesis Two models –Advantage –Classic Concave key arrangement –Accommodates differing finger lengths –Prevents wrist extension Central positioning of common “weak finger” keys –Backspace –Enter Foot switch compatible

99 Freestyle Keyboard by Kinesis Adjustable, split keyboard –Pivot Tether connects both modules Driverless Hot keys (not supported on Macs) Optional accessory packages for increased functions

100 Goldtouch Keyboard Splits into two sections for adjustment between 0 and 30 degrees –Horizontal –Vertical (tenting) Integrated numeric keypad External numeric keypad available

101 Maltron Ergonomic Keyboard Concave key wells to accommodate differing finger lengths Centralized number keys Vertical alignment of key rows Thumb keys –Return –Space –Backspace Shift Lock feature

102 Maxim Keyboard by Kinesis Low-force keys Horizontal and vertical adjustments at 0, 8, or 14 degrees Removable palm supports Embedded numeric keypad External numeric keypad available

103 Natural Keyboard Elite by Microsoft Keys aligned for natural wrist and arm alignment

104 Tru-Form Keyboard Split keyboard in an integrated unit Built-in wrist support Dual keys –PC – Alt, Shift, Control, & spacebar –Mac – Command, Shift, Option, Control, & spacebar Option of built-in touchpad

105 Keytop Overlays & Keyguards Features –Adapt keyboards for moisture-prone use –Provide color cues to emerging typists –Retrofit an existing keyboard inexpensively –Provide support for users unable to support wrists or isolate keys easily Considerations –Adhesives may leave a residue when removed –OS settings may need to be adjusted (in cases where a keyboard is being changed to a non-QWERTY layout)

106 Keyboard Skins Protect keyboard from moisture and dust Conforms to keyboards for a secure fit Requires model and FCC# at time of order (to ensure proper configuration)

107 Keyguards Available in plastic or metal versions May be easily removed, if necessary Conforms to specific keyboard arrangments (specified at time of order) Keyguards are often available for specialized keyboards (through the keyboard manufacturer)

108 Keytop Overlays Braille Early Learning Finger Position High Contrast Large Print Uppercase/Lowercase

109 Coded/Alternate Entry Keyboards Features –Utilize chords, codes, or pre- programmed settings –Reduce keystrokes –Reduce hand movement (travel) Considerations –Learning curve is typical –Non-intuitive

110 BAT Keyboard Left and right hand models Single-handed keying –Can be used in addition to a standard keyboard –Free hand for Braille reading Seven keys to perform all standard keystrokes –Chord-based entry –Programmable macros

111 Darci USB Adjustable, stored settings –One to three switches –Timing –Code set Plug-and-play (no specialized drivers) Bus-powered for convenience and portability Audio feedback

112 EasyLink Braille Keyboard Bluetooth Brailler –6 Braille keys –3 function keys Compact design Highly portable 10 hours of continuous use on battery

113 EZ Keys XP Multiple layouts/entry methods for adapted computer access –Mouse –Switch access Single Multiple –Keyboard –Mouse emulation software –Morse Code Built-in features –Text to speech –Word prediction –Abbreviation expansion

114 Jouse2 Morse code joystick –Control movement with mouth, chin, cheek, or tongue –Perform mouse clicks with the integrated sip and puff switch Emulates mouse and keyboard activations Four user-selectable versions of Morse Code

115 Lomak Light operated mouse and keyboard –Handheld pointer –Head pointer Plug-and-play Requires little physical effort Reduces accidental input through dual input –Selection confirmed by illumination –Confirm key to use Equidistant, circular key arrangement

116 Programmable Keyboards Features –Allow macros to be programmed –Allow computer input via traditional and non-traditional means Letter-based Word-based Phrase-based Picture-based –Highly customizable User requirements Activity requirements Considerations –Time and planning is often required prior to use –Typically require specialized drivers (not plug-and-play)

117 DX1 Keyboard 25 repositionable keys –Useful when vision, dexterity, or range of motion hinder use of other devices Scalable – add keys when needed Macros –Programmable –Pre-built –Recordable

118 IntelliKeys Keyboard Built-in stand for flat or angled use Wide variety of overlays –Pre-programmed –Printable –Customized (with separate Overlay Maker software) Keyguards available Dual-switch inputs Compatible with IntelliTools software and activities

119 X Keys Stick Programmable software –Macro Works (PC) –iKey (Mac) Sixteen keys Repositionable Backlight illumination for low-light use Legends –Pre-cut for handwrite –Microsoft Templates

120 X-Keys Keypad Programmable keypad Works as an auxiliary keyboard Two configurations –20 keys (39 macros) –58 key (115 macros)

121 Onscreen Keyboards Features –Keyboard and text are on the same plane –Ability to change layout –Alternate input Mouse – click or dwell Switch Touchscreen –Integrated word prediction and abbreviation expansion Considerations –Loss of “real estate” –Fatigue and repetitive stress –May require assistance with programming/set- up

122 Clicker 5 Support or develop writing skills in “non writers” Allows for high level of structure Option for textless composition Universal Design Quick, on-the-fly changes to cell content Free, content- sharing site

123 CubeWriter Customizable interface –Letters –Words –Numbers –Punctuation Personalized word lists Three modes of use –Type –Write –Teach

124 Discover:Screen by Madentec Text-to-speech Point and click access –Letters –Words –Phrases Adjunctive (works with all applications on a computer)

125 IntelliTools Classroom Suite Fully customizable Switch-ready Scanning available Compatible with IntelliKeys USB –Pre-made overlays –Overlay Maker software is required for custom overlays

126 KeyStrokes Macintosh software Five resizable layouts –Number pad –Function keys –Navigation –QWERTY –Alphabetic Modifiable keys and background Resizable Dwell selection

127 Onscreen by IMG Built-in supports –Word prediction –Calculators –Macros –Numeric layouts –International layouts Dwell selection Verbal Keys Feedback Show/Hide key function Smart Window repositioning Scanning option available

128 REACH Interface Author by Applied Human Factor 140 preprogrammed layouts –Customizable –Create-your-own Key Size Button for quick resizing Built-in supports –Word prediction –Scanning –Word use learning –Dwell selection Smart Keys –Removes or deemphasizes unlikely combinations –AutoType for single-result combinations

129 ScreenDoors 2000 by Madentec Built-in features –Word prediction –Abbreviation expansion Three keyboard layouts –QWERTY –Alphabetic –Frequency of Use Dwell selection

130 SofType Five layouts –QWERTY –Alphabetic –Frequency of use –Numeric –KidKeys –Create-your-own Resizable –Size –Font –Spacing Built-in features –Word prediction –Dwell selection –Jitter control –Dragger – single switch control of mouse functions –Macro programming

131 WiVik by Prentke Romich 50 layouts in 22 languages Fully customizable Repositionable Built-in features –Word prediction –Abbreviation expansion –Dwell selection –Scanning Automatic Step Direct

132 Word Prediction Features –Rate enhancement to reduce keystrokes –Real-time display of choices Vertical Horizontal Dynamic –Access to specialized word lists as needed –Text-to-speech capability Considerations –Adjunctive versus self-contained word prediction –Phonetic versus sequence based

133 Co:Writer Intelligent word prediction Flexible spelling Collected words Predict Ahead eWord Banks Basic, personal, and topic dictionaries Text-to-speech Neo version available Adjunctive use (may be used with a wide range of applications)

134 Cloze Pro Type or paste prepared text Remove words automatically or manually –Word or letter recurrence –Sequence –Pattern Present words in a grid or pop-up list Prompt with word shape, word, exposed letters Useful when etext is available Suitable for assessment and cloze-style tasks

135 Writing With Symbols 2000 Four writing environments –Symbol Processor –Word Processor –Grids for Printing –Grids for Writing Customizable word lists Useful as a teacher or student tool

136 Soothsayer Text-to-speech Adjunctive word prediction AutoType Feature Abbreviation Expansion Sentence completion Automated correction of common spelling errors

137 WordQ Text-to-speech Adjunctive word prediction Usage examples for confusing words Accommodates phonetic spelling attempts Offers the option of speech recognition via SpeakQ

138 Other Input Devices Mice Trackballs Joysticks Number Pads Switches and switch interfaces Touchscreens Head mice Microphone and speech recognition

139 Other Input Devices Mouse options –Switch adapted –Ergonomic –Handheld Trackballs Joysticks –Gaming –Roller Joystick –Roller Joystick Plus Number Pads Switches and Switch Interfaces –Crick USB –Don Johnston Switch Interface Pro –IntelliKeys USB Keyboard Touchscreens & monitors Head Mouse –Tracker Pro

140 Speech Recognition Utilizes a microphone to input text Requires adequate speech skills Requires topic and perform corrections/training significant executive functions to maintain a May allow for reduced use of the hands when controlling the computer Consider environment and task when implementing

141 Dragon Naturally Speaking, IBM Via Voice, Mac Dictate Continuous recognition Allows for keyboard- free text input Support for adult and teen voices Analyzes existing documents for vocabulary and style Noise-cancelling headset or array microphone is recommended Skip Training option Accuracy tool set Works in an adjunct capacity to other software Not suitable for discrete recognition Specialized versions available (Dragon NaturallySpeaking)

142 SpeakQ Customizable training Discrete and continuous prediction modes Speech feedback of recognized text No verbal commands for control or correction Integrated word prediction capability Text-to-speech feedback Allows for both keyboard and speech input Server-level storage of student voice files

143 Scan and Read/Write Programs Kurzweil 3000 Read and Write Gold SOLO by Don Johnston WYNN

144 Kurzweil 3000 Reading, writing, studying, and test taking software Grades 3-12 Assists students who are unable to read fluently at grade level Multisensory access to virtually any text or curriculum –Print –Electronic –Web-based documents Helps develop study skills for independent learning Used at all tier levels for RtI Supports principles of (UDL) Universal Design for Learning Web Licensing for access at home

145 Read and Write Gold Reading, writing, studying, test taking software Improves reading fluency and comprehension Encourages independence and inclusion Multisensory access to virtually any text or curriculum –Print –Electronic –Web-based documents Used at all tier levels of RtI Supports the Principles of UDL Concurrent user licensing accessed from school or home

146 SOLO by Don Johnston Literacy Suite combining 4 tools –Word Prediction –Graphic Organizer –Talking Word Processor –Text Reader Assists in developing reading skills –Comprehend –Synthesize –Expand ideas –Edit Assists in developing writing skills –Compose –Organize –Revise –Publish

147 WYNN Wizard Reading, writing, studying, test taking software Improves reading fluency and comprehension Encourages independence and inclusion Color-coded, rotating toolbars –File management –Visual and auditory presentation of text –Study Tools –Writing Aids –Internet Use Multisensory access to virtually any text or curriculum –Print –Electronic –Web-based documents Used at all tier levels of RtI

148 Electronic Aids to Daily Living (EADL)

149 Basic EADLs –Provide alternative access to: Battery operated devices i.e. toy Simple electronic devices i.e. fan –Provide limited control of an infrared receiving device i.e. TV “volume up” –Access almost always by a switch Multifunction EADLs –Provide control of a variety of devices such as: TV, DVD, Stereo, CD Lights Appliances i.e. blender, fan Heating and AC Door Openers Electric Hospital Beds Telephone

150 Electronic Aids to Daily Living (EADL) Basic EADLs –Operated by direct connection via battery adapter Individual can notch battery cover and insert battery adapter between battery and contacts –Operated by direct connection via pre-adapted device Ablenet Adaptivation Enabling Devices –Can have intermittent control via: Switch latch Switch latch and timer Dual switch latch and timer Choice switch latch and timer

151 How can EADLs be used? To provide play To meet educational goals To increase independence To increase social interaction with peers To prepare/train for more advanced assistive technology

152 Electronic Aids to Daily Living (EADL) Integrating into the curriculum –Play and Learn /tabid/205/Default.aspx?ItemCo de=200PAL /tabid/205/Default.aspx?ItemCo de=200PAL A 12-month motor-based preschool curriculum specifically developed for children of All abilities! More than 300 pages of theme- based activities that are highly engaging, and relevant to young children. Each activity includes a "Try Another Way" option that utilizes simple assistive technology so all students can participate, communicate and learn.

153 Case Studies Case 1 –Seating/positioning, mobility, accessibility w/classroom and different chairs, AAC, Intellitools, EADL i.e. games for recess, inclusion for class activities i.e. fan, blender Case 2 –Seating/positioning, AAC, access to curriculum, peer relations, EADL for computer and AAC access

154 Case Studies Case 3 –Kurzweil 3000, Fusion Case 4 –AAC, Clicker 5

155 Resources Ablenet Presentations –Positioning for Access by Michelle Lange, OTR, ABDA, ATP SupportDocId=191 SupportDocId=191 –Switch Access and Assessment: determining type and location by Michelle Lange, OTR, ABDA, ATP SupportDocId=192 SupportDocId=192 –Classroom Applications by Michelle Lange, OTR, ABDA, ATP SupportDocId=193 SupportDocId=193

156 Resources Closing the Gap – Dynavox Technologies Implementation Toolkit – Enabling Devices Communicator Comparison Chart – art.pdf art.pdf Scott A. Dougherty, AIU #3 –

157 Websites Adaptivation Photo Gallery of Ideas _Website/Adaptivation_Photo_Album.html _Website/Adaptivation_Photo_Album.html Abledata Georgia Project for Assistive Technology

158 Contact Information Cricket Rizzo MS, OTR/L, ATP Occupational Therapist Westmoreland Intermediate Unit #7 102 Equity Drive Greensburg, PA 15601 (724) 836-2460 x 2193 (VM) Kendra Bittner MEd, SoSE, ATAC IDEA TaC, Assistive Technology Allegheny Intermediate Unit #3 475 East Waterfront Drive Homestead, PA 15120-1144 412-394-5872 AIU Assistive Technology Home Page

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