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Program Evaluation. Evaluation Systematic investigation of merit or worth using information gathered to make that decision (Guskey, 2000) Needed in physical.

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Presentation on theme: "Program Evaluation. Evaluation Systematic investigation of merit or worth using information gathered to make that decision (Guskey, 2000) Needed in physical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Program Evaluation

2 Evaluation Systematic investigation of merit or worth using information gathered to make that decision (Guskey, 2000) Needed in physical education to –Keep program current and dynamic –Inform curricular change decisions

3 Should evaluation strengthen ends or means?

4 Purpose of Program Evaluation To determine a new program plan To document the validity and/or importance of the expectations To document the way in which the program is being implemented To determine the effect of the program on participants To provide recommendations for revisions based on identified weaknesses

5 Curriculum Evaluation Examine curricular goals Student performance assessments Views of stakeholders Teacher evaluations Facilities assessments

6 Defensible Data Considers –Reliability Findings are replicable –Validity Appropriateness of measures

7 Program Implementation Are the students enrolled in the program representative of the type of students for whom the program was planned? Is the program being implemented by representative teachers in the teacher-student ratios? Has the content planned for inclusion been taught?

8 Program Effectiveness Program evaluation seeks to describe the number of students who are making gains on the program objectives –Evaluation of the program is merely an extension of the evaluation of individual students

9 Program Effectiveness Did change occur? Was the change statistically significant? Was the effect educationally significant? Can effects be replicated? Did the observed effects result from the program?

10 If students don’t meet the program outcomes, one must consider: –Characteristics of the teacher –Characteristics of the students –Characteristics of the instructional setting or context –Characteristics of program implementation Strength of relationships often provide insight regarding potential program revisions

11 Program Improvement Document individual student achievement and assess the nature & impact of the hidden curriculum as well as intended outcomes Consider possible changes in program objectives or modifications of the existing program standards

12 Determining needed changes Knowledge of ‘what’ to improve must be supplemented with information suggesting ‘why’ the weakness exists Weakness observed in program implementation usually results from a lack of knowledge about the process that is involved in planning, implementing, or evaluating; therefore, INSERVICE

13 Evaluation Models Desired outcome model –Primary focus is student achievement –Eval. limited by those outcomes that can be precisely stated and for which objective measures can be developed Insensitive to ‘process’ and humanistic aspect of education

14 Evaluation Model Goal-free model: –Attention goes beyond outcomes to all that is relevant –Follow a checklist Use a wide variety of techniques –Product tests e.g. fitness tests, motor skill tests Self-reports may be utilized Use dress outs, absences, assignments

15 Evaluation Model Goal-free –Primary value: evaluation is more complete and representative –Disadvantage: may rely too heavily on subjective information; may not look at a full range of evaluative needs

16 Developing the eval. plan Look at total picture rather than isolated “units” Plan to evaluate the effects of program that do not easily lend themselves to measurement –e.g. affective development If state mandated standards are in curriculum, eval must be structured with mandates in mind

17 Selection of Eval Instruments Outcomes based eval will use quantitative data from objective tests to assess changes in students –these can provide formative & summative data –check individual curr. models for examples of eval. tools

18 Qual. vs Quan. Eval Qualitative eval processes are description, disclosure of meaning, and judgment –used when the perspective of curriculum does not specify mastery Quantitative eval: inferences made by statistical significance on the most easily observed characteristics of the environment –most often used during content mastery

19 Quantitative vs Qualitative Curr. eval will generally use both quantitative and qualitative types of eval. Types of instruments suggested for program needs assessment may also be used for program evaluation

20 The instructional process Qualitative evals tend to be used Study student-teacher interactions –study the target of the teacher’s attention –verbal interactions –nature of discipline –classroom climate

21 Preformative Evaluation Prior to activity, program, or project Identifies goals Estimates impact Analysis of program implementation Helps to avoid costly mistakes

22 Formative Evaluation Occurs during activity Helps to redirect –Time, money, personnel, and resources Proactive Occurs multiple times

23 Summative Evaluation Occurs at conclusion of project Determines what was accomplished Used for accountability Frequently uses quantitative data

24 Indirect Measures Afterschool program participation Non-school program participation Student readiness Enrollment in elective classes Attendance, dress, and participation

25 Systematic Model A performance assessment based on authentic assessment The work sampling system assesses and documents a full range of skills, behaviors & values –components: developmental checklists, portfolio collection, summary reports

26 Student Fitness Levels Many schools choose to focus on –How to get fit or devising personal plans Caution about –Expecting all students to achieve a certain level –Setting criterion for particular tests (e.g., a 6-minute mile) –Curriculum aligning with fitness goals

27 NASPE STARS Time Teacher –Qualifications –Professional development –Professional involvement –Student ratio Student health and safety Facilities and equipment Program mission Curriculum Instructional practices Student assessment Inclusion Communication Program evaluation

28 PECAT Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool Based on NASPE standards Developed by CDC in partnership with experts

29 Student Assessment: Portfolio Use Keeps track of student progress Provides students an opportunity to assess own accomplishments Determines the extent to which learning objectives have been mastered Helps parents understand their child’s effort & progress Serves as basis for program evaluation

30 Portfolio Evaluation Methods Reflection: by students; by parents; by peers –all should compare the entries to the standards for the evaluation Conferences: meetings with individuals, small groups to discuss individual growth & achievement compared to teacher’s judgment Progress report: look holistically, create rubrics

31 Developmental checklists Used for observing, recording, & evaluating behaviors The performance indicators reflect expectations for developmentally appropriate activities; ratings by “not yet”, “in process, “proficient” –e.g. uses strength and control to perform fine motor tasks –uses eye-hand control to perform fine motor tasks

32 Portfolio Collection Samples are selected that are common to all learners Other items that capture the uniqueness of individual learners may also be chosen –the learner is allowed to be involved in the selection process and may judge the quality of own work

33 Summary Report The checklists & portfolios are reviewed & judged –judgments in terms of “developing as expected” or “needs improvement” –progress is “as expected” or “not as expected” Report gives comments on strengths & weaknesses as well as steps to support the learner’s academic growth

34 Evaluation Summary Good evaluation –Informs programmatic change –Occurs on a regular basis –Is planned –Is based on multiple data sources Data should inform decision, not make it

35 How do you look at instructional effectiveness, course productivity, and program effectiveness in regards to the curriculum that you are mapping?


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