2Overview Information, Knowledge, and Judgment Computers and Community The ‘Digital Divide’Evaluations of the Impact of Computer TechnologyMaking Decisions About Technology
3Source of Information : Evaluating Information on the Web Web a prevalent source of information.Is the source good? Not as obvious as in print medium? Hard on web to even sometimes know who the “author”/source is.Expert information or individual opinion or ‘wisdom of the crowd’?Daunting amount of information on the web, much of this information is not correctSearch engines are replacing librarians, but Web sites are ranked by popularity, not by expert evaluationWisdom of the crowd - ratings by public of websiteIf millions participate, the results will be useful
4Evaluating Info on the Web An example: WikipediaWritten by volunteers, some posts are biased and not accurateAlthough anyone can write, most people do notThose that do typically are educated and experts
5Evaluating Info on the Web Wisdom of the crowdProblems of unreliable information are not newThe Web magnifies the problemsRating systems are easy to manipulateVulnerable viewersLess educated individualsChildrenCompared to print media…where you have to physically get it….we can have wide audience “find” web material through search engines…Responsibilities of site operatorsShould identify user-supplied contentMake clear which information has been verified
6Media on the Web Manipulation of images: Movies and videos use special effects to add creativity and enjoyment of entertainmentPeople can use technology for deception and fraudEase with which we can modify digital images and videoShould news agencies modify images and videos?Faking photos is not a new phenomenon; more people can do it now because it’s easy
7Writing, Thinking and Deciding? Have computer/technology/web tools displaced skills that were once important??Example: Is it okay to create a paper by “mashing” together other peoples thoughts quickly found/taken from the web.Abdicating responsibility…the future? The now?People willing to let computers do their thinking (computer models…see next slide)Reliance on computer systems over human judgment may become institutionalizedFear of having to defend your own judgment if something goes wrong (so let the computer/web/technology speak for you)
8Computers Thinking for us: Computer Models Computer Models = program/system that autonomously or semi-autonomously models a situation and possibly makes decisions or presents results/ conclusions
9Computers Thinking for us: Computer Models The PROBLEMHow well do the modelers understand the underlying science or theory?Models necessarily involve assumptions and simplifications of reality…..so, they produce results that may not be absolutely correct.How closely do the results or predictions correspond with the results from physical experiments or real experience? Are they better than the human experience?
10Computer Models…more Why models may not be accurate We might not have complete knowledge of the system we are modelingThe data describing current conditions or characteristics may be incomplete or inaccurateComputing power may be inadequate for the complexity of the modelIt is difficult, if not impossible, to numerically quantify variables that represent human values and choices
11Discussion QuestionsEval.1) How do you evaluate the reliability of information you find on the Web? How do your evaluation methods compare to the way you evaluate information from other sources?Eval.2) Some computer models are better than others. What types of models work well? What types don't? Why?Post your answers on discussion board.
12Computers and Community It is human nature to form associations based on common interests and beliefsSome feared early technologies, such as telephones, thinking communication would be de-humanizedComputers and the Internet were blamed for the decline in community involvement and memberships in clubs and organizationsBut, the Internet provides communities focused on specialized interests or problems
13Computers and Community (cont.) The Internet brings people together from all over the worldand the Internet provide convenient and cheap ways for families and friends to stay in contactNew trends include social-networking sites such as MySpace and virtual environments such as Second Life
14Discussion QuestionsEval.3) How convincing is the argument that electronic commerce threatens small (“brick and mortar”) community businesses and thus the health of small communities?Eval.4) Do you think that communicating by text messaging and via social-networking sites depersonalizes or dehumanizes your relationships with friends?Post your answers on the discussion board.
15The "Digital Divide" New technologies only available to the wealthy The time it takes for new technology to make its way into common use is decreasingCost is not the only factor; ease of use plays a roleEntrepreneurs provide low cost options for people who cannot otherwise afford somethingGovernment funds technology in schoolsAs technology becomes more prevalent, the issues shift from the haves and have-nots to level of service
16The "Digital Divide" (cont.) The Global Divide and the Next Billion Users:Approximately one billion people worldwide have access to the Web; approximately five billion do notNon-profit organizations and huge computer companies are spreading computer access to people in developing countriesBringing new technology to poor countries is not just a matter of money to buy equipment; PCs and laptops must work in extreme environmentsSome people actively working to shrink the digital divide emphasize the need to provide access in ways appropriate to the local culture
17Impact of Computer Technology The Neo-Luddite View of Computers, Technology, and Human Needs:Movement of opposition to specific or general technological developmentComputers cause massive unemploymentNo real need (We use technologies because they are there, not because they satisfy real needs)Computers cause social inequityBenefit big business and the governmentDo little or nothing to solve real problemsComputers separate humans from nature and destroy the environmentThe term Luddite is a political/historical term relating to a political movement during the Industrial Revolution
18Impact of Computer Technology (cont.) Accomplishments of Technology:Prices of food are down and raw materials are abundant (cheaper to produce w/ technology)Real buying power is up (easier to distribute)Food supplies and GDP are growing faster than the populationDramatic impact on life expectancy (hmm?)Assistive technologies benefit those with disabilities
19Making Decisions About Technology The Difficulty of Prediction:Each new technology finds new and unexpected usesThe history of technology is full of wildly wrong predictionsWeizenbaum argued against developing speech recognition technologyMistaken expectations of costs and benefitsShould we decline a technology because of potential abuse and ignore the benefits?New technologies are often expensive, but costs drop as the technology advances and the demand increases
20Making Decisions About Technology Intelligent Machines and Super-intelligent Humans - Or the End of the Human Race?Technological Singularity - point at which artificial intelligence or some combined human-machine intelligence advances so far that we cannot comprehend what lies on the other sideWe cannot prepare for aftermath, but prepare for more gradual developmentsSelect a decision making process most likely to produce what people want
21Discussion QuestionsEval.6) If you could decide what technologies should be developed, what would you develop? Why?Eval.7) Does the prospect of super-intelligent robots scare you?Post your answers to discussion board.