Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Evaluative Arguments Scott Hale English 1213."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Evaluative Arguments Scott Hale English 1213
Definitional Arguments: n Basis of All Knowledge/Communication n Argue that Item X belongs in Category Y n Scooter (X) is a murderer (Y)
Evaluative Arguments: n The next step in Knowledge/Communication n Having defined an item--X is a Y n We then evaluate that item--X is a good/bad Y… n Evaluations depend upon definitions
Requirements for Evaluative Arguments: n Evaluations require comparison/contrast between items within the same category/genus n To argue that this is a good/bad chair requires that we compare/contrast it with other chairs...
AND... n Evaluative Arguments must be couched in evaluative terms…. n Adjectives... n Good/bad; effective/ineffective; successful/unsuccessful; cooperative/ uncooperative; resentful/unresentful… n Flag Day is a joyous holiday...
Toulmin Schema: n Today is a beautiful day b/c it is sunny. n C: Today is a beautiful day n R: b/c it is sunny n G: Today is sunny; Ev: Support that it is sunny today n W: Any day that is sunny is a beautiful day n B: Support that beautiful days are sunny
Strategy for Constructing Evaluative Arguments: n Construct convincing criteria for evaluation... n Demonstrate that the evaluated item possess those criteria... n Sunniness is the criteria for a beautiful day n Today possesses that criteria (sunniness)
Difficulties in Constructing Evaluative Arguments: n Demonstrating that the evaluated item possess that criteria (Synthesis/analysis) n Constructing convincing criteria… n Problems...
Problem of Standards: Normal vs. Ideal: n Curfew... n Normal--12:00 Midnight n Ideal--Before sunrise
Problem of Mitigating Circumstances: n Circumstances out of the ordinary/Things we can’t control... n Revision Guides…? n Drunk? n Hit and Run? n Mitigating Circumstances revise criteria
Problem of 2 Goods vs. 2 Bads: n 2000 Ferrari vs. 1979 Pinto? n 2000 Ferrari vs. 2000 Lamborghini? n 1979 Pinto vs. 1974 Nova? n Evaluating 2 Goods vs. 2 Bads revise criteria
Problem of Seductive Empirical Measures: n Statistics… n 100% of College students drink on Friday night… n 100% of College students study on Saturday night… n Control the numbers…
Problem of Cost: n What happen if the best costs too much? n To enhance student learning, OU should buy every student a laptop computer... n To teach effective birth control, every student should have to have sex using a condom… n Cost isn’t always about $$
Determining Criteria for Evaluative Arguments: n Step 1: Determine the genus--too broad/too narrow? n Step 2: Determine the purpose/function of genus n Step 3: Determine criteria based upon purpose/function n Step 4: Give relative weight to criteria-- which is most important?