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CHICAGO. “THE CHICAGO MIRACLE “In 1830 there were probably more pigs than houses in Chicago: its population was about 300.” 1850 population: 29,963 (570.3%

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Presentation on theme: "CHICAGO. “THE CHICAGO MIRACLE “In 1830 there were probably more pigs than houses in Chicago: its population was about 300.” 1850 population: 29,963 (570.3%"— Presentation transcript:

1 CHICAGO

2 “THE CHICAGO MIRACLE “In 1830 there were probably more pigs than houses in Chicago: its population was about 300.” 1850 population: 29,963 (570.3% increase from 1840) 1860 population: 112,172 (274.4% increase from 1850) 1870 population: 298,977 (166.5% from 1860) 1880 population: 503,185 (68.3% from 1870) 1890 population: 1,099,850 (118.6% increase from 1880) 1900 population: 1,698,575 (54.4% increase from 1890)

3 As an importer, processer, packager and exporter of goods from all around the United States, Chicago became one of the fastest urbanized cities of the world. 1/25 of the world’s railways converged in Chicago in It was the most easily reached of the world’s large cities. In 1890 Chicago had two dozen “skyscrapers,” 7,000 offices were functioning and another 7,000 was being planned.

4 Chicago, 1820

5 Chicago, 1850 The grid plan: an efficient means of profit for construction companies : land prices increased by 800% and the population doubled to over one million

6 Chicago, aerial view, 1872

7 Chicago, aerial view, 1926

8 What is the most striking difference between the layouts of Paris and Chicago? What accounts for this difference?

9 The grid layout, which allows for efficient subdivision of land to be sold and easy expansion. This served the purposes of construction bosses who dominated the building industry.

10 Great Chicago Fire, 1871 “On October 8, 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed most of the city's central area. It started in the lumber district on the city's West Side. A cow owned by Mrs. O'Leary's allegedly knocked over a kerosene lamp that started the fire. By October 10, the fire had destroyed nearly four square miles of the city, and had claimed at least 250 lives and left 100,000 residents (20%) homeless. More than 17,000 buildings were destroyed and property damages were estimated at $200 million.” The fire showed the vulnerability of cast iron. “The Rush for Life Over the Randolph Street Bridge, 1871” (Harper's Weekly, from a sketch by John R. Chapin) Chicago, 10 October 1871 map of fire damage

11 “THE SKYSCRAPER” 1855: The “Bessemer Process” becomes the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from iron. (steel = iron + carbon, making it more fire-resistant than iron) 1865: Steel production made even easier and more efficient with the “Siemens-Martin Open Furnace” Method, making the price of steel low enough to allow entire buildings to be framed with steel members (price of steel per ton: $166; $107; $69; $68; $29; $32; $32) 1876: The “electromagnetic telephone” is invented by Alexander Graham Bell and begun to used. 1878: The electric light bulb is invented by Thomas A. Edison and begins to be used. 1879: The safety “elevator” (invented by Elisha Otis in 1854) used for the first time in a building in New York

12 Chicago School / “Commercial Style” Chicago Construction / Fire Proof Iron skeleton: The architects of Chicago school employed a new type of construction. The Floating Foundation: They invented a new kind of foundation to cope with the problem of the muddy ground of Chicago. The Chicago Window: They introduced the horizontaly elongated and “bay” window. They created the modern business and administration building typology. “Most importantly, for the first time in the nineteenth century the schism between construction and architecture, between the engineer and the architect, was healed. With surprising boldness, the Chicago school strove to break through to pure forms, forms which would unite construction and architecture in an identical expression.” Sigfried Giedion

13 William Jenney, “First Leiter Building,” Chicago, USA, 1879 (demolished 1972) Cast iron columns from foundation to roof, wood beams for the floor. On the façade, brick piers frame glass bays

14 William Jenney, “First Leiter Building,” Chicago, USA, 1879 (demolished 1972) left: ground floor; right: upper floor

15 William Jenney, “First Leiter Building,” Chicago, USA, 1879 (demolished 1972) typical “bay” with stone piers and glass windows

16 William Jenney, “Home Insurance Building,” Chicago, USA, (demolished 1931) “The First Skyscraper” (?): the first building with a completely steel skeleton brick and terra cotta “hanging” outside on the steel frame

17 Burnham & Root, “The Rookery Building,” Chicago, USA, 1886 steel skeleton structural frame with stone on outside

18 Burnham & Root, “The Rookery Building,” Chicago, USA, 1886 entrance detail

19 Burnham & Root, “The Rookery Building,” Chicago, USA, 1886

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21 Burnham & Root, “The Rookery Building,” Chicago, USA, 1886 central sky-lit lobby

22 Adler & Sullivan, “Auditorium,” Chicago, USA, iron framing in the theater, otherwise load-bearing

23 Adler & Sullivan, “Auditorium,” Chicago, USA,

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25 Adler & Sullivan, “Audlitorium,” Chicago, USA,

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28 Burnham & Root, “The Monadnock Building,” Chicago, USA, 1891 load-bearing exterior masonry walls with cast iron floor joists

29 Burnham & Root, “The Monadnock Building,” Chicago, USA, 1891

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31 Louis Sullivan (without Dankmar Adler), “Carson Pirie Scott Department Store,” Chicago, USA,

32 Louis Sullivan, “Carson Pirie Scott Department Store,” Chicago, USA,

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35 What are the differences between the urbanization processes of Paris and Chicago in the 19th century?

36 Patronage Chief concerns Demolishment processes Urban layout Building types

37 At the end of this lecture you are expected to have learnt: 1.The implications of modernization at the urban level. 2.Differences between modern urbanization processes (The garden city, Paris, Chicago)


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