Presentation on theme: "BRAHM PRAKĀSH (Divine Illumination) By Pir Shams (r.a.) Likely date 13 th century."— Presentation transcript:
BRAHM PRAKĀSH (Divine Illumination) By Pir Shams (r.a.) Likely date 13 th century
A presentation by Kamaluddin Ali Muhammad Devotional Literature Educators’ Sessions Itreb auditorium Karachi 05-11-08
GENERAL FEATURE 150 couplets (pāths) with style of Kabir and Nānak Theme: spirituality, meditation, bliss, salvation. Language: Simple Hindi, vocabulary drawn from Sādhuladi Boli (language used by the saints). (Tāzim Kassam)
AUTHORSHIP AND AUTHENTICITY On the basis of language, style and content, scholars cast doubt on authorship and date. Not earlier than 16 th century, time of Guru Nānak and Kabir. Or possible interpolation, like some other ginans. Or another Pir Shams of sixteenth century. (Tāzim Kassam) Other ginans do not support many of the names used in this granth.
CENTRAL THEME Attainment of bliss (sukh, ānand) through sabad (shabd, word or name). Prescription for dhikr or meditation; three months, six months, nine months. Spiritual experience Long section on losers or false path Equally long section on achievers Spectacles and miracles
DIVISION OF THE TEXT - 1 Couplets 1 to 5 method of attaining bliss. Couplets 6 to11 inner experience after verbal repetition for three months. Love (prem), rapture sukh, ecstasy (matvālā). Couplets12 to 40 criticism of the losers, wrong path. Abrupt shift of topic, interpolation...?
DIVISION OF THE TEXT - 2 Couplets 40 to 60 names of Hindu figures, deities, mythological figures, historical people (like Shivā, Prahlād, Kabir, Nānak, Rohidās, Dādu, Gorakhnāth etc) who attained bliss (sukh).
DIVISION OF THE TEXT - 3 Couplets 61 to 77 narrate the nature of spiritual state after meditation for 6 months in the heart, then 9 months in naval and finally ascend to skull where spectacles are witnessed. Couplets 77 to 93 explain the nature of sabad (shabd).
DIVISION OF THE TEXT - 4 Couplets 93 to 105 elaborate on mukti (salvation) Couplets 106 to 117 tell us that the base of author’s knowledge is personal experience. Couplets 118 to 140 talk about four yugas, and that the Divine took the form of Nakalanki / nishkalanki (impeccable.)
LIST OF LOSERS - 1 Pothi patrā vā ṅ chi sunāve Jatā juth kahāve bhagvāna Jati rākh matā khāli rahiyā Jogi hoke jugti na pāi Jangam nishdin visvāse dhyāve Adsath tirath deh navāi Khat karam tripan kare āchārā Dudhā dhāri nāgā muni
LIST OF LOSERS - 2 Pathrā puje ghant bajāve Gāe vajāde tode tānā Bahutā dekhe bāndhe pothā Sab gināni mili padi padi phulā Jadi buti kari deh jivāde Bahutā karie okhad pāni Bahutā nātak chitak karie Jantra mantra kā kare pasārā
LIST OF LOSERS - 3 Mandhli bāndhi mahant kilāyā Koti jagan asvamedh karāve Jivat dehi kheh bich dāti Nirsavādi hoi kandkhadi khāyā Guphā banāi rahe bho ṅ māhi Udat gadat rākhe doe gotā Kāshi ma jai karvat linā Jai himāle gāle gudā
LIST OF LOSERS - 4 Jivant deh agan mā ṅ he jāri Pade sur hoi khand vikhandā Kyā savāgi aru kyā sansārā No mention of Mullahs, Qazis or Mawlanas An miliyāki jugti batāi, Ab miliyāki kahu ṅ samjāi
LIST OF ACHIEVERS - 2 Kitā, Ghat-te, Sajnā, Senā, Agar, Kiljan, Tulsi, Dās Morār, Malukā Jangi, Haridās, Bājind Bādshah, Isar Tumber, tatva vetā (philosophers), khoji (searchers), tyāgi (renouncer of the world), Gorakh, Gopichand, Bharthari yogi and uncountable more… No Muslim names
SEQUENCE OF THOUGHT - 1 Sat sabad (shabd) Pir Shaha Repetition with tongue Continuous dhikr of pir shah Three months with tongue Shifted to brahm Release of love Conviction in heart
SEQUENCE OF THOUGHT - 2 Essence of love, secret revealed Ripple of love, release of sweetness from mouth Engrossed in love Intoxicated in love Rapture and fearless claims Divine happiness inexplicable
SEQUENCE OF THOUGHT - 3 List of losers, sudden change in tone List of achievers Back to the topic Concentration in heart for six months Suddenly it moved to naval (achambhā) Nine months stayed there, same bliss Ascend to sky (skull) from west and witness wonders.
SEQUENCE OF THOUGHT - 4 Thunder without cloud Place without space Rain without cloud A person without a body Incessant thunder Heart at the trikuti (meeting point of inglā, pinglā and sukhmanā)
SEQUENCE OF THOUGHT - 5 Rain of sukhmanā, where the Unseen resides No instrument (tur-shehnāi) but music, no sun but sun No flow but Ganges, no companion but company Sound of incessant dhikr is shehnāi The light is sun
SEQUENCE OF THOUGHT- 6 Sukhmanā is the Gangā Surti and sabad (concentration and word) are the company. This world cannot be described Quality of sabad (word) Akhand - cannot be broken Amar - immortal, does not die
SEQUENCE OF THOUGHT- 7 Ajar - indigestible, digested by concentration Akāl - timeless Alekh - that which cannot be written Adol - unwavering, immovable Atol - unique Athā - unfathomable Akhar - indestructible Apār - boundless
SEQUENCE OF THOUGHT- 8 Relationship between surti and sabad Miracle of this relationship It goes beyond this life, beyond body I said what I witnessed, no hearsay Emphasis shifts from sabad to nām, word sāheb introduced. Blessings of repeating sāheb nām Four yugas and bhagats, nakalanki Mehdi Imam…? Interpolation…?
SEQUENCE OF THOUGHT- 9 Name of Pir Shams appears from pāth 141 Name of the granth (brahm dhiyān parkasa) at the end
SELECTED VERSION OF ITREB-PAKISTAN List of losers and achievers dropped Names of Hindu personalities and concepts dropped Mehdi Imam dropped Language modernized / refined
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