Presentation on theme: "2007Webster’s High School Drama Dept Theatrical Lighting A Brief Introduction."— Presentation transcript:
2007Webster’s High School Drama Dept Theatrical Lighting A Brief Introduction
2007Webster’s High School Drama Dept General Lighting Provides a diffuse, shadow less, wash of light over the entire stage space
2007Webster’s High School Drama Dept Specific Lighting Introduced by the lime light in the middle of the 19th century, provides a sharp, highly controlled shaft of light.lime light These shafts were used to highlight a small area of the stage, a principle actor, or create the illusion of sunlight (or moonlight). These units were typically placed in the balconies of the auditorium or the galleries on the sides of the theatre.
Common Lighting Terminology Flood A broad beam of light, less directional and intense than a spot. Spot A controlled, narrowly-focused beam of light. Tungsten Light from an ordinary light bulb containing a thin coiled tungsten wire that becomes incandescent (emits light) when an electric current is passed along it. Tungsten colour temperature is around 2800K to 3400K. Also known as incandescent light. FresnelA light which has a lens with raised circular ridges on its outer surface. The fresnel lens is used to focus the light beam.
Flood This is the simplest type of lantern, consisting of a lamp and a reflector in a box, with no lens. The reflector concentrates the light towards the opening in the box. There is no control over the focussing of a flood, other than its general direction. Symbol for a flood on a lighting plan
Fresnel Lights Stage Lighting Fresnels provide a round soft edge circle of light that can be adjusted from spot to flood. You can change the color of this theatrical light by placing color gel in front of the unit.
Fresnel The Fresnel (pronounced "Frennel") is a soft-edged spotlight with more control over beam angle than floods, but less control than profiles. The lens is a series of stepped concentric circles on the front and pebbled on the back It was first used in stage lighting in the late 1920s. The size of the beam can be adjusted by moving the lamp and reflector closer to or farther from the lens, either by a screw mechanism or a simple slide. The beam can be shaped by the four barndoors attached to the front of the lantern. Strand Cadenza Fresnel Symbol for a Fresnel on a lighting plan
Fresnel Fresnel "spotted down" - lens further from glass Fresnel "flooded" – lens closer to glass
PC (Pebble Convex) The PC is common in Europe, but is rarely seen in the US. The basic design of this lantern dates back to the first days of stage lighting, but the modern version has one important difference. This lantern uses a modified lens with a pebbled effect on the plano (flat) side. The pebbled effect gives the beam its characteristic soft edge. The edge of the beam is slightly harder than a Fresnel, but is not hard edged. The pebble convex lens uses the efficiency of the plano convex lens and gives the light a softer edge. Like a Fresnel, there is one focussing knob to change the beam angle. Symbol for a PC on a lighting plan
Profile Profile lanterns produce clearly defined spots of light and are the most focussable and versatile of the lanterns. They have a lens (some have two lenses), a lamp and a reflector, and they also have shutters and a gate. Profiles get their name from their ability to project the shape of anything placed in the gate of the lantern between the lamp and the lens. These shapes may be formed by the shutters, or they may be cut out of thin metal (a "gobo“). Symbol for a profile on a lighting plan gobos
Profiles cont. Some profiles with only one lens have two sets of shutters, one of which gives a hard edge to the beam, and one which gives a softer edge. These are known as bifocal profiles. Profiles with two lenses (zoom profiles) are best for projecting gobos and other shapes, as the size and sharpness of the beam is fully adjustable throughout the beam angle range of the lantern. A zoom profile lantern is known by the range of its beam angle (e.g. Prelude 16/30, Cantata 18/32 are both zoom profiles from Strand Lighting's range). A followspot is a special type of profile lantern with additional controls, extra handles, sights, built-in colour changer and iris, and is usually of much higher power.
Ellipsoidal Profile Spots / Leko A Leko is an ellipsoidal profile spot. Leko's are much more common in the US than the Zoom Profiles we tend to prefer in the UK. They are of fixed beam angle. The name Leko is a contraction of the original manufacturer's names (Joseph Levy and Edward F. Kook - founders of Century Lighting). Leko's were originally patented in 1933, and is still manufactured today by Strand Lighting (which now owns Century Lighting).Strand Lighting Ellipsoidal profile spots are sometimes known as ERS (Ellipsoidal Reflector Spots).
Ellipsoidals or Lekos A stage lighting ellipsoidal light, also known as a leko is the most versatile conventional fixture of stage lighting. While it emits a circular beam of light, you have the ability to adjust every aspect of it for your theatrical lighting needs.
Leko Continued 1 - You can change the diameter of the circle to adjust to your stage lighting need. 2 - You can change the shape of the circle using shutters that will help adjust to your theatre lighting need. 3 - You can change the colour to help adjust to your theatre lighting needs. 4 - You can project images and shapes with gobos that can produce scenery with stage lighting. 5 - You can have a sharp or fuzzy image. 6 - You can lock the focus of the light where you need it.
ETC Source 4 They are very similar to the Lekos, because they are ellipsoidal and strong lights. They are stronger and used more frequently in theatres.
Followspot A stage lighting followspot is a theatrical lighting unit that is manipulated by a followspot operator (human) behind the unit, to point the light at the desired object. Followspots have the ability (in general) to change color, focus and size of the circle easily. Some folks call it a theatrical spot light. It is comprised of a stand, a yoke, and the head.
Super Trouper Followspot When the Strong Super Trouper followspot was introduced in 1956, it was the brightest in the world. It originally had a carbon arc source but this was superceded in 1971 by a Xenon discharge lamp. Tonight the Super Trouper lights are gonna find me Shining like the sun
Followspot With the lenses far apart, the beam is narrow With the lenses close together, the beam is wider.
Parcan The lantern itself is simply a "can" in which the PAR lamp is contained (hence "Parcan"). The PAR (Parabolic Aluminised Reflector) lamps are available in a range of beam angles depending on the amount of diffusion on the front lens of the lamp. The lamp is a sealed beam unit consisting of a lamp, reflector and lens in one. Because the light produced can be very intense, Parcans are especially suited to strong colours or for special effect. Be aware that deep colours can burn out quickly at full intensity. Symbol for a parcan on a lighting plan This lantern first came into use in the 1970's in the Rock and Roll industry. It quickly found favour due to the relative cheapness of the lantern, the weight and the ease of focussing.
Birdies A birdie is a miniature lantern that's ideal for hiding in small parts of a set or along the downstage edge of the stage. It provides a surprisingly bright soft-edged pool of light. Although the beam is sometimes unevenly spread, the benefits of having a punch of light where no normal lantern can go are massive. Where does the name come from? Well, you see the birdie looks a little like a parcan, but is a lot smaller? You could say, it's "One under Par" - which, as every golfer knows, is called a "birdie".
Seneca's Oedipus at the Northcott Theatre, Exeter UK, 1998. Lighting Design: Jon Primrose. A single narrow Parcan used as a backlight through atmospheric haze. A birdie uplight adds fill from the front. Far from the Madding Crowd at the Northcott Theatre, Exeter UK. Lighting Design: Jon Primrose. Glass Moon gobo used on the rear cyclorama.
The Standard 3-Point Lighting Technique The technique uses three lights called the key light, fill light and back light. Naturally you will need three lights to utilise the technique fully, but the principles are still important even if you only use one or two lights. As a rule: If you only have one light, it becomes the key. If you have 2 lights, one is the key and the other is either the fill or the backlight.
The Standard 3-Point Lighting Technique - Key Light Key Light This is the main light. It is usually the strongest and has the most influence on the look of the scene. It is placed to one side of the camera/subject so that this side is well lit and the other side has some shadow.
The Standard 3-Point Lighting Technique – Fill Light Fill Light This is the secondary light and is placed on the opposite side of the key light. It is used to fill the shadows created by the key. The fill will usually be softer and less bright than the key. To achieve this, you could move the light further away or use some spun. You might also want to set the fill light to more of a flood than the key.
The Standard 3-Point Lighting Technique - Back Light Back Light The back light is placed behind the subject and lights it from the rear. Rather than providing direct lighting (like the key and fill), its purpose is to provide definition and subtle highlights around the subject's outlines. This helps separate the subject from the background and provide a three-dimensional look.
Timeline of Lighting Developments Candles Oil Lamps Gas Lighting Electric Lighting Lime Light Arc Light Electric Spotlight Some of these overlap each other so the timeline deals with each separately and not in true chronological order
Candles Italy - 1580-1618: Candles are introduced in both the academic (Teatro Olimpico) and court (Teatro Farnese) theatres. England - 1600s: Used in the private (indoor) theatres and Ingo Jones' (1573-1652) Court Masques. 1660s: Reintroduced during the English Restoration. Mounting Positions: Chandeliers over both the stage and the house, Front edge of the stage (footlights), and "Ladders" between each pair of side wings.
Oil Lighting 1780s: Swiss chemist Aime Argand develops the modern oil lamp that soon replaces the candle as the primary light source. Mounting Positions: The same as with candles-- Chandeliers, Foot lights, and Ladders in the wings.
Gas Lighting 1816: The world's first gas stage-lighting system is installed at the Chestnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia. 1817: Gas-lighting systems are installed in London's two legitimate houses: Drury Lane and Covent Garden. 1820s: Gas light is in experimental use in most countries of the Western World.
Gas Lighting 1840s: Gas lighting is widely adapted and the gas table (control board) makes its appearance. 1880s: The incandescent mantle (the Auer burner) is introduced producing a much brighter and safer light. Mounting Positions: Footlights, Border Lights (between each pair of scenic borders), and Wing Lights (between each pair of scenic wings).
Electric 1879: Thomas Edison perfects the first practical incandescent electric lamp. 1881: London's Savoy Theatre installs the world's first electric lighting system-- 824- 16 candle power lamps were used to light the stage and an additional 334 lights illuminated the auditorium. 1882: The first American installation of electric lights is at Boston's Bijou's Theatre.
Electric 1890s: By the end of the 19th century most "modern" theatres have switched from gas lights to the much safer electric lights. 1903: Kliegl Brothers installs an electrical lighting system with 96 resistance dimmers (and 20 additional dimmers for house lights) at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City. See the illustration below. Mounting Positions: The same as with gas- lighting: Footlights, Borderlights and Winglights.
Lime Light 1816: The calcium light (also known as a limelight or Drummond light) is demonstrated by Thomas Drummond, it's inventor. 1837: English actor-manager Charles Macready uses a limelight at London's Covent Garden. 1870s-1880s: The limelight is in general use in "modern" theatres. By the end of the 1880s as many as eleven units were used in productions at Stockholm's Royal Theatre. 1890s: The limelight is beginning to be replaced by the newer and brighter carbon arc lamp.
Arc Light 1807: Sir Humphry Davy demonstrates a carbon arc lamp powered by a 2,000 cell battery. Further development is halted by the lack of a readily available power supply. 1832: Hippolyte Pixii, a French instrument maker, builds an experimental direct current dynamo (generator). 1849: An arc lamp is used to create a sunrise effect at the Paris Opera's production of Meyerbeer's Le Prophete.
Arc Light 1878: Charles Brush develops a practical dynamo making the carbon arc lamp a workable source of light 1890s: The carbon arc lamp begins to replace the calcium light in the "modern" theatre. The illustration on the left is a Kliegl No. 5, a 5" Lens Box with a 25 amp (2750 watt) carbon arc lamp (1913). 1920s: The newer and safer incandescent spotlight, using a modern 1000 watt lamp, begins to replace the carbon arc for general theatrical use. 1990s: Carbon arc lamps continue to be used as a follow spot until the end of the 20th century.
Electric Spotlight 1904: Louis Hartmann builds a small (5" lens) spotlight, a baby lens, which used a 50 candle power (approximately 50 watt) lamp for David Belasco's production of The Music Teacher. 1906: Hartman uses 4-- 250 watt baby lenses (in addition to 31-- 1,5000 watt carbon-arc spots) in Belasco's The Rose of Ranchero. 1907: Edison introduces the 500 watt lamp. 1911: Edison introduces a "concentrated filament" lamp for use in a lens hood (spotlight).
Electric Spotlight 1913: Kliegl Brothers markets the No. 60, a 5" Baby Spot built around a 100 candle power lamp. According to the catalogue, the unit provided a "mild ray of light." 1913: The 1000 watt lamp becomes available. 1916: Designer Norman Bel Geddes replaces the carbon arc lamp in a lens box with a 1000w incandecent lamp.
Electric Spotlight 1920s: 5", 6" and 8" PlanoConvex spotlights (lens hoods), using a 1000 watt lamp, begin replacing the Lime Light and Carbon Arc lamp.The illustration on the left is of a Kliegl No. 5N, a 5" Lens Box with a 1000 watt lamp (1926). Note the similarity between the No 5 and the No 5N. 1929: Kliegl Brothers introduces the Fresnel lens spotlight. 1933s: Both Kliegl Brothers (Klieglight) and Century (LekoLight) introduce the ellipsoidal reflector spotlight