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China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) A Short introduction for selected cases from China DR. ZHANG LI, Assistant Professor MA Supervisor

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Presentation on theme: "China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) A Short introduction for selected cases from China DR. ZHANG LI, Assistant Professor MA Supervisor"— Presentation transcript:

1 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) A Short introduction for selected cases from China DR. ZHANG LI, Assistant Professor MA Supervisor Leonzsh@tongji.edu.cn THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE & URBAN PLANNING TONGJI UNIVERSITY 2012.01

2 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012)  Shanghai: smooth land, no mountains, only one small hill

3 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012)  A CASE: NOT PRACTICED, BUT COULD BE PRE-DESCRIBED

4 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) FAR=0.3

5 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012)  In China: The land ownership and using rights are separated.  The land rights belong to government, the property rights belongs to individuals.  The land law: permit local government to call back the property rights for common interest The question is “what is for common interest”? ”how much could the property owner get?” Our government has strong power to develop the lands. The government pulls down 1000 m 2 buildings and then build up 2000 m 2 buildings. By that way, local government earn and reinvest to infrastrucure. FAR=3.0

6 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) THIS IS THE FUTURE OF URBAN VILLAGE

7 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) CASE 2 IN GUANGZHOU NOW FAR=5.0 FAR=?? How can this redevelopment practice if no government invest? How is about the community life in this site? Fire Security? Sunshine? Fresh air? Landscape?

8 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) CASE 3 IN SHANGHAI

9 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) Sinan Mansions ( Hotel )

10 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012)

11 Site Design Orientation : RECONSIDERING  Where is our site? What is the connection to this city?  What is the function for our site?  What is community life? How much can we improve it?  How to make it to practice by design?  Is (Are) there any architecture(s) to be worthy to protect?  How to mark the site history in your design?  Who will use this site and the buildings(architecture)? Think widely, Focus narrowly-----one core Clue for 1 team

12 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) CHINA’S URBANIZATION PROCESS ( 1949-2013 ) DR. ZHANG LI, Assistant Proffessor MA Supervisor Leonzsh@tongji.edu.cn THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE & URBAN PLANNING TONGJI UNIVERSITY 2012.01

13 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) World urbanization trends worldDeveloped Area Non-Developed Area AsiaChina 195029.152.518.016.811.2 198039.168.829.626.319.4 198540.970.032.329.023.7 199043.071.235.131.926.7 199544.772.237.634.431.3 200046.673.140.237.136.2 200548.674.042.739.743.0 200749.474.443.840.844.9 201050.675.045.342.549.7* 1950-2010+21.5+22.5+27.3+25.7+38.5 1950-19801016.311.69.58.2 1980-201011.56.215.716.230.3 After 1980s, world urbanization mainly happened in non- developed area and Asia, especially in China.

14 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 1960s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Not shaped up smoothly 14 1.4 Chinese Urbanization Accelarating Chineses Urbanization

15 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) How to understand Chinese Urbanization

16 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 1949-1957: migrate freely  1945-1949 : Civil War  1949: The People’s Republic of China was founded  New society: people migrate freely  As a result: a lot of people migrated into cities and the law- and-order situation in cities went from bad to worse

17 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 1949-1957 17  1949: 542 million population, only 58 million live in cities.10.6%  1957: first Census in China, 647 million population, 100 million live in cities. 15.4%  8 years: 4.8% increase

18 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 1958-1967  Spies and etc. ? Aim to kill leader (Mao)  1958: Social control  《 PRC Household Registration Ordinance 》 (1958), the difference (segregation) between urban and rural people shaped  Rural people registered in village neigborhood committee  Urban people registered in bureau of public security in cities.

19 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 1958-1967: Hukou System  1958: Great Leap Forward Policy  Heavy industry oriented policy, Steelmaking, learn from Soviet Union  To prepare the 3 rd War  The result: disasters for the common people.  Authorative information: Three years nature disaster,  But, artificial

20 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012)

21 1958-1967  1960-1962: short of food, grain, flour,rice,etc. extreme scarcity of food, many, many Hungry people from rural area to cities  1963: Agriculture household registration: farmer, None agriculture household registration: urban people  Grain supply, Employment, Education, Health care, Marriage, Child registration (follow his(her) mother), etc. Named: HUKOU( 户口 )  Government control: the change ratio, no more than 1.5 ‰ from agri Hukou to Non- agri Hukou. After 1980, 2.5 ‰

22 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) Regionalization Migrating Route: an example

23 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 1958-1967 23  1958: 660 million population, 107 million live in cities.16.2%  1967:, 764 million population, 135 million live in cities. 17.7%  10 years: only 0.5% increase

24 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 1968-1977: Disorder era  1968: Disorder in the World, Politcs  Civil Rights Movement, Martin Luther King and John F. Kennedy was killed.  Soviet Tanks entered Prague, Vietnam war  Generation gap between Guys born after war and people underwent War  China: the Cultural Revolution  The students, do not study again, but walk to street to fight enemy  Enemy: intellects, scientists, teachers,

25 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) To Promote young intellects to settle down in countryside  The real whys: the governments could not supply enough job position for university graduates.  Nearly 20 million was promoted to rural area.

26 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 1968-1977 26  1968: 785 million population, 138 million live in cities. 17.62%  1977: 950 million population, 167 million live in cities.17.55%  10 years: no increase

27 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 1978-1991 : Opening Reform  Mao died in 1976, Culture revolution end.  1978: Chinese government decided to reform the planned economy.  The young intellects in rural areas: strongly intention to go back to cities.  No enough jobs for them.------ somewhat disorder in cities.  more than 10 million

28 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 1978-1991 : Opening Reform  1980: township’s registration threshold unfastened, the government began to permit rural people move to small towns in case that they supply their grain by themselves, but not by governments.  Result: more than 1 million rural people migrated into small towns in 1984.  But: towns are different from cities, No great increase for urbanization level.  1980 th : private economy began to be permitted. Individual employed people 310,000(1979) , 810,000(1980 , 2610,000(1982),

29 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) Policies about population increase cities  1989: 《 Urban Planning Law 》 issued, confirm the policy:  To control the scale of large cities and promote small cities and towns  How to control: Household registration  the change ratio, no more than 2.5 ‰ from agri Hukou to Non-agri Hukou After 1980, the ratio will be lower in lager cities.

30 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 1978-1991 30  1978: 963 million population, 173 million live in cities.17.9%  1991:, 1158 million population, 319 million live in cities. 27.6%  13 years: 9.7% increase

31 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 1992-1999: Economic Revolution  1993: power delivered to local governments, Centralization to decentralization  Tax system, before 1993: local governments must turn over fixed tax to the state. After 1993: the local governments share tax with central government, then they have enthusiasm to promote local economic and increase their income from tax.  value-added tax, for central government.  sales tax and etc. share with central government.  Land use rights could be transferred from state to private developers after 1989’s practice in Shenzhen City.  Local governments then have a new income source

32 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) State owned companies reform  Chinese state owned companies have so many supernumeries  Dismissed nearly half  Then the state owned company recovered their energy and could compete with other companies, even foreign companies.

33 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) Many cities and city regions were emerged

34 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 1992-1999 34  1992: 1172 million population, 333 million live in cities.28.5%  1999:, 1258 million population, 443 million live in cities. 35.2%  7 years: 6.7% increase

35 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 2000-2011: Glaobalization  WTO SIGNED IN 2001 (world trade organization)  Global investment  Global division of labor  China: World Factory  Fig: FDI ( $100 million)

36 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) First 30 migration flows

37 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) First 30 migration flows

38 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) Population, Migration

39 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) The number of cities from 1949-2010 >2 1-21-2 0.5 - 1 0.2 - 0.5 <0.2 Totel 194914718102132 195225821117153 1958461848108184 196558184295168 197056214897177 197867276093193 19848113181164295 198992128116276450 1993102236160342570 2000132753218352663 2005213385225292656 2010244087239264654 million

40 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 2000-2010 40  2000: 1267 million population, 459 million live in cities.36.2%  2010:, 1371 million population, 666 million live in cities. 49.7%  10 years: 13.5% increase

41 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) 1960s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Not shaped up smoothly 41 Chinese Urbanization Accelarating Chineses Urbanization

42 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012)  To pay more attention to people’s living standard  To narrow social inequality  To support industry transition from labor-densed to technology-densed. Policy Trends

43 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) The end  China is not only the biggest manufacture country But also the largest consumption country. China also want to be a creative country like Korea and Japan.  In China, you will have many chance to succeed including earning money, self-realization, research etc. Welcome you to study, work and invest in China (Shanghai), you will (not would) win in the near future.

44 China’’s Urbanization Process (1949-2012) THANK YOU


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