5In China: The land ownership and using rights are separated. The land rights belong to government, the property rights belongs to individuals.The land law: permit local government to call back the property rights for common interestThe question is “what is for common interest”?”how much could the property owner get?”Our government has strong power to develop the lands.The government pulls down 1000 m2 buildings and then build up 2000 m2 buildings.By that way, local government earn and reinvest to infrastrucure.FAR=3.0
11Site Design Orientation：RECONSIDERING Where is our site? What is the connection to this city?What is the function for our site?What is community life? How much can we improve it?How to make it to practice by design?Is (Are) there any architecture(s) to be worthy to protect?How to mark the site history in your design?Who will use this site and the buildings(architecture)?Think widely, Focus narrowly-----one core Clue for 1 team
12CHINA’S URBANIZATION PROCESS（1949-2013） DR. ZHANG LI,Assistant ProffessorMA SupervisorTHE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE & URBAN PLANNINGTONGJI UNIVERSITY
13World urbanization trends After 1980s, world urbanization mainly happened in non-developed area and Asia, especially in China.worldDeveloped AreaNon-Developed AreaAsiaChina195029.152.518.016.811.2198039.168.829.626.319.4198540.970.032.329.023.7199043.071.235.131.926.7199544.772.237.634.431.3200046.6184.108.40.206.2200548.674.042.739.7200749.474.443.840.844.9201050.675.045.342.549.7*+21.5+22.5+27.3+25.7+38.51016.3220.127.116.11.56.215.716.230.3
14Accelarating Chineses Urbanization 1.4 Chinese UrbanizationNot shaped up smoothly1990s1980s2010s1960s2000sAccelarating Chineses Urbanization
161949-1957: migrate freely 1945-1949：Civil War 1949: The People’s Republic of China was foundedNew society: people migrate freelyAs a result: a lot of people migrated into cities and the law-and-order situation in cities went from bad to worse
171949: 542 million population, only 58 million live in cities.10.6%1957: first Census in China, 647 million population, 100 million live in cities. 15.4%8 years: 4.8% increase
181958-1967 Spies and etc. ? Aim to kill leader (Mao) 1958: Social control《PRC Household Registration Ordinance》(1958), the difference (segregation) between urban and rural people shapedRural people registered in village neigborhood committeeUrban people registered in bureau of public security in cities.
191958-1967: Hukou System But, artificial 1958: Great Leap Forward PolicyHeavy industry oriented policy, Steelmaking, learn from Soviet UnionTo prepare the 3rd WarThe result: disasters for the common people.Authorative information: Three years nature disaster,But, artificial
21: short of food, grain, flour,rice,etc. extreme scarcity of food, many, many Hungry people from rural area to cities1963: Agriculture household registration: farmer, None agriculture household registration: urban peopleGrain supply, Employment, Education, Health care, Marriage, Child registration (follow his(her) mother), etc. Named: HUKOU(户口)Government control: the change ratio, no more than 1.5 ‰ from agri Hukou to Non-agri Hukou. After 1980, 2.5 ‰
231958: 660 million population, million live in cities.16.2%1967:, 764 million population, 135 million live in cities. 17.7%10 years: only 0.5% increase
241968-1977: Disorder era 1968: Disorder in the World, Politcs Civil Rights Movement, Martin Luther King and John F. Kennedy was killed.Soviet Tanks entered Prague, Vietnam warGeneration gap between Guys born after war and people underwent WarChina: the Cultural RevolutionThe students, do not study again, but walk to street to fight enemyEnemy: intellects, scientists, teachers,
25To Promote young intellects to settle down in countryside The real whys: the governments could not supply enough job position for university graduates.Nearly 20 million was promoted to rural area.
261968: 785 million population, 138 million live in cities %1977: 950 million population, 167 million live in cities.17.55%10 years: no increase
271978-1991： Opening Reform Mao died in 1976, Culture revolution end. 1978: Chinese government decided to reform the planned economy.The young intellects in rural areas: strongly intention to go back to cities.No enough jobs for them somewhat disorder in cities.more than 10 million
28： Opening Reform1980: township’s registration threshold unfastened, the government began to permit rural people move to small towns in case that they supply their grain by themselves, but not by governments.Result: more than 1 million rural people migrated into small towns in 1984.But: towns are different from cities, No great increase for urbanization level.1980th : private economy began to be permitted. Individual employed people 310,000(1979)，810,000(1980，2610,000(1982),
29Policies about population increase cities 1989: 《Urban Planning Law》 issued, confirm the policy:To control the scale of large cities and promote small cities and townsHow to control: Household registrationthe change ratio, no more than 2.5 ‰ from agri Hukou to Non-agri Hukou After 1980, the ratio will be lower in lager cities.
301978: 963 million population, million live in cities.17.9%1991:, 1158 million population, 319 million live in cities. 27.6%13 years: 9.7% increase
311992-1999: Economic Revolution 1993: power delivered to local governments, Centralization to decentralizationTax system, before 1993: local governments must turn over fixed tax to the state.After 1993: the local governments share tax with central government, then they have enthusiasm to promote local economic and increase their income from tax.value-added tax, for central government.sales tax and etc. share with central government.Land use rights could be transferred from state to private developers after 1989’s practice in Shenzhen City.Local governments then have a new income source
32State owned companies reform Chinese state owned companies have so many supernumeriesDismissed nearly halfThen the state owned company recovered their energy and could compete with other companies, even foreign companies.
39The number of cities from 1949-2010 million>21－20.5－10.2－0.5<0.2Totel194914718102132195225821117153195864810818419654295168197097177197827609319319841131811642951989928116276450199310223616034257020001353218352663200533852252926562010244087239264654
402000: 1267 million population, million live in cities.36.2%2010:, 1371 million population, 666 million live in cities. 49.7%10 years: 13.5% increase
41Accelarating Chineses Urbanization Chinese UrbanizationNot shaped up smoothly1990s1980s2010s1960s2000sAccelarating Chineses Urbanization
42Policy Trends To pay more attention to people’s living standard To narrow social inequalityTo support industry transition from labor-densed to technology-densed.
43The endChina is not only the biggest manufacture countryBut also the largest consumption country.China also want to be a creative country like Korea and Japan.In China, you will have many chance to succeed including earning money, self-realization, research etc.Welcome you to study, work and invest in China (Shanghai), you will (not would) win in the near future.