Presentation on theme: "Industry and Competitive Analysis"— Presentation transcript:
1 Industry and Competitive Analysis When an industry with a reputation for difficult economics meets a manager with a reputation for excellence, it is usually the industry that keeps its reputation intact. (Warren Buffet)
4 A Three-Dimensional Business Landscape (Ghemawat, 2001)
5 Industry Analysis: Tools and Frameworks Supply and DemandValue AddedDriving ForcesPorter’s Five Forces AnalysisValue Net and Complementors
6 Simple Economic Tools for Strategic Analysis (Corts and Rivkin, 2000) MonetaryUnits ($)SupplyEquil. PriceDemandEquil.QuantityPhysicalUnits (q)
7 Demand Analysis: Key Concepts Willingness to payTastes or needsIncome or wealthSubstitute goodsComplementary goodsMarket DemandArraying individual buyers in order of their willingness to payDemand Segments and Price DiscriminationPrice Sensitivity, or Elasticity of Demand
8 Supply Analysis: Key Concepts Supply in the short runFixed costsMarginal costsCash costsOpportunity CostsSupply (Q) up to p = MCSupply in the long runOpportunity costs of capital
9 Price Marginal Cost Average Cost Units Reinvest and stay in Business Stay in but donot reinvestShut Down ImmediatelyUnits
10 Value Added - A Simple Game Imagine there are 30 students in this class. A black card is passed out to each student.
11 Value Added - A Simple Game Imagine the instructor holds 30 red cards.
12 Value Added - A Simple Game The Dean has agreed to pay $100 for each pair (1 black + 1 red) of cards.$100
13 Value Added - A Simple Game How much would you be willing to accept for your black card? Imagine the instructor offered you $20. Would you accept this offer?
14 Value Added – A Slight Modification Imagine the same game except now the instructor only has 27 red cards. There are still 30 black cards for 30 students. How much would you accept for your black card?
15 YOUR ADDED VALUE = The size of the pie when you are in the game Minus The size of the pie when you are out of the game(Brandenburger and Nalebuff, Coopetition, 1996)
16 Added Value in the card game = When the instructor is in the game, the value of the game is $3,000. When the instructor is not in the game the value of the game is $0.When there are 30 black and 30 red cards, each student has an added value of $100 because without each student a match cannot be made and $100 is lost.
17 Added Value in the card game = When there are 30 black and 27 red cards, the instructor has an added value of $2,700 and an individual student has an added value of $0. Since 3 students will end up without a match, no one student is essential to the game. The total value of the game with 30 students is $2,700; the total value of the game with 27 students is $2,700.
18 What is your added value? Ask yourself the following question:If I enter this game, what do I add?That is how much you can bargain for.
19 Value AddedSales RevenueMaterial Cost0%100%RawMaterialComponentsAssemblyDistrib.Retail
20 Value Added of a UNR Education (U.S. Census data, 2005) Avg. Annual IncomeH.S. Dropout$18,734High School$27,915Bachelors$51,206Advanced74,602Of those age 25 or over surveyed, 85% have completedhigh school and 28% have a bachelors degree…bothrecord highs.
21 Cost of UNR Education Undergraduate = $83 * 128 = $10,624 MBA = $111 * 51 = $5,661Assume we took UNR out of the game, what would you do?
22 Driving Forces What is causing the industry to change? "An Update on Moore’s Law“
23 Moore’s LawThe observation made in 1965 by Gordon Moore, co-founder of Intel, that the number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits had doubled every year since the integrated circuit was invented. Moore predicted that this trend would continue for the foreseeable future. In subsequent years, the pace slowed down a bit, but data density has doubled approximately every 18 months, and this is the current definition of Moore's Law, which Moore himself has blessed. Most experts, including Moore himself, expect Moore's Law to hold for at least another two decades.
24 Five Forces Framework Threat of Entry Supplier Power Rivalry Buyer PowerThreat of Substitutes
26 1. RivalryIntense rivalry among firms in an industry reduces average profitability.
27 What causes rivalry to be strong or weak? 1. Number and relative size of competitorsConcentration ratio= % of total industry sales accounted by the 4 largest firmsLogging = 18%Cigarettes = 85%
28 What causes rivalry to be strong or weak? Herfindahl Index - a measure of the balance in an industryHI = 10,000 * (The Sum of (the square of each firms market share))Example: 3 firms with market shares of 0.50, 0.25, 0.25HI = 10,000 ((0.50)^2+(0.25)^2+(0.25)^2) = 3750= 0 Perfectly Competitive= 10,000 Monopoly>1800 Industries with reduced rivalry
29 2. Buyer PowerSize and concentration of customers
30 3. Supplier Power Differentiation Switching Costs Intel Gets Fined May 2009
31 4. Threat of SubstitutesPrice to Performance RatiosSwitching Costs
35 Entry Barriers Economies of Scale Capital Requirements Minimum Efficient Scale- (MES) is the smallest volume for which the unit costs reach a minimum.Example. MES is the following industries is:Cigarettes 20.0%Tires 3.0%Capital Requirements
36 Co-opetition - The Value Net CustomersCompetitorsCompanyComplementorsSuppliers
37 Competitive Position of Major Companies / Strategic Groups PriceRolls RoyceJaguarCamryAccordTaurasYugoKiaQuality
38 Other Steps… Competitor Analysis Key Success Factors Overall Industry Attractiveness
39 Industry Importance: Empirical Evidence Rumelt, R. (1991). How much does industry matter? Strategic Management Journal, 12:"To the extent that accounting returns measure the presence of economic rents, the results obtained here imply that by far the most important sources of rents in US manufacturing businesses are due to resources or market positions that are specific to particular business-units rather than to corporate resources or to membership in an industry. Put simply, business units within industries differ from one another a great deal more than industries differ from one another.
40 Approximate Effects on Variance in Rumelt (1991)Approximate Effects on Variance inReturn on Capital:Variable% of Variance ExplainedCorporate Effects0.8%Stable Business Effects8.3%Stable Business-Unit Effects46.4%
41 Approximate Effects on Variance in Porter & McGahan (1997)Approximate Effects on Variance inReturn on Capital:Variable% of Variance ExplainedYear2%Industry19%Corporate Parent4%Business Specific Effects32%
42 Industry Importance: Empirical Evidence 2. McGahan, A., Porter, M. (1997). How much does industry matter, really? Strategic Management Journal, v18, pp We also find that the importance of the effects differ substantially across broad economic sectors. Industry effects account for a smaller portion of profit variance in manufacturing but a larger portion in lodging/entertainment, services, wholesale/retail trade, and transportation.