Ch 7 Discussion Questions 1.What was the industrial revolution? 2.What revolution sparked the industrial revolution? 3. What country did the Industrial Revolution begin in? 4. List how technology affects our lives both positively and negatively. (Was the industrial revolution + or -?) 5. What factors does a nation need to industrialize? Are all nations industrialized today? Why or why not?
Factors of Industrialization Human Resources Natural Resources New Technology Stable Government Good Economy Good Social Conditions
Dawn of the Industrial Age Industrial Revolution started in Britain – Economic changes – Spread around the world “Industrial England: Workshop of the World”- Napoleon
Life Changes 1750 Worked the land Tools were handmade Made their own clothing Small villages – Rarely left your hometown 1850 Worked in factories Tools and clothing were made by machines Small villages became large industrial towns – Traveling became common
New Ideas Telegraph-sending urgent messages Anesthetics and improved medicine methods Large sewing machines
Why did the Industrial Revolution occur? 1.Agricultural Revolution – (improved methods of farming) a. Dutch led the way b. English mixed soils = high yields c. Charles Townshend – “Turnip Townshend” -Crop Rotation, grow turnips, rotate crops to restore soil. d. Jethro Tull, seed drill = no waste, plants in rows
2.Land Enclosure Enclosure: the process of taking over land that was shared by peasants Parliament wanted land to get more food production – Profits rose – More efficient – High unemployment Moved to the factories
Population Growth Why would the population go up? – Changes in agriculture Better crops More crops Healthier people Better medicine practices Declining death rate and rising birth rates 1700-120 million in Europe/1800-180 million
New Technology Coal becomes a new source of fuel = pollution Water wheels moved machines James Watt – Developed the steam engine Iron – Abraham Darby used coal to smelt- separate iron from the ore – Stronger iron
Business Ideas? With a partner create a list of things you would need to start a business – Materials, buildings, etc. Next think of an new invention that would have a major impact on society Example- train, television – Create a drafting of what the invention would look like
Section 3- Social Impact The rich got richer, while the poor got poorer Although, standards of living increased many worked and lived in poor, unsafe, unsanitary conditions
Urbanization a.The movement of people to cities b.Enclosure c.Population growth (-Manchester 1750’s =17000, by 1780= 40,000) With this huge pop. growth what impact will that have? d. Pollution of water and air e. Packed into tiny tenement buildings, slums -no sanitation system, garbage in streets. -no running water = Cholera + diseases
New Social Classes-Wealthy Factory, railroad, mine owners Educated Plenty of food Good living conditions Looking at this cartoon what are some of your thoughts?
New Social Class-Bourgeois Industrial Middle Class – Rags to riches – Worked in factories – Lived in nice homes, with water supplies – Fancy clothing – Women stayed at home while the men worked – Servants, maids – Education for children – Viewed the poor as being lazy
New Social Classes- Working Class Struggled Lived in slums No running water and drank dirty water Lived in their own filth – Spread of diseases
Protests Labor Unions were illegal at this time – Why would they be illegal? Secret Unions – Wanted higher pay, better working conditions Luddites- group of textile workers – Hated machines were replacing them – Smashed machines and burned factories
Workers and Religion Found comfort in Methodism John Wesley founded this in the mid 1700’s Goal-rekindle spirit, hope, self confidence, of working poor. – Set up Sunday schools = education
The Factory and Mine Life Different from farming -12-16 hour days, set schedule -N-No safety devices accidents/injuries -B-Breathing dirty air -N-No breaks many went to the bathroom where they worked -N-No job security- get hurt, no work
Women Workers -Much of industrial workforce -Preferred women workers 1. pay them less 2. Easy to manage 3. Adapt easier to the machines -Poor mother had to balance roles.
Children Workers Could you imagine yourself working in a factory? Child labor - narrow mine shafts -quick & little fingers for textiles -children like parents “slaves to the machines” -beaten if idle -uneducated
Mine Workers Higher wages – Really bad working conditions Working conditions – Black Lung – Dark – Explosion, flooding
Child Labor Reform Called the factory acts – Reduced work day to 12 hours!!! – Under the age of 9 you couldn’t work in mills Factory owners did not follow the law
Results of the Revolution Unions, 1800’s helped employees bargain. Working class men get the vote = voice Spread all over the world. Mass production “Begins with great suffering, in the end it produces more material things for more people!”
Section 4-New Ways of Thinking Looked at natural laws and the impact with the Industrial Revolution – Adam Smith – Thomas Malthus – David Ricardo – Jeremy Bentham – John Stuart – Robert Owen – Karl Marx
Laissez Faire Adam Smith- Scottish philosopher and economist Wrote the Wealth of Nations Business leaders took his idea of “Laissez- faire” this hands off approach to business Free Market- lower prices on goods reinvest the extra money
Laissez-Faire Activity All of us, making all kinds of choices, make up the invisible hand that Adam Smith wrote about. We act in our own self- interest. Suppose you have a part-time job and are trying to set up a budget. After taxes and payroll deductions, your weekly take-home pay is $150. In setting up your budget, you must determine your short-term and long-term financial goals. Short- term goals would include your immediate expenses such as clothing, concert tickets, gas for the car you use, and eating out. Long-term goals might include saving money for a computer, saving for college, for a car, or for a summer trip. List your goals and the money you will budget for each. Use estimated prices of your items in order to budget properly. Be specific. What factors might cause you to redefine your goals and adjust your budget? Also, the world is a large market and goods you purchase maybe from a foreign country. Why would you choose a foreign product over a domestic product?
Thomas Malthus Population growth would outpace food supply. War, disease, and famine good = population control. Urged families to have fewer children
David Ricardo Iron Law of Wages ↑ wages ↑more kids Would result in ↑ of labor supply ↓ wages Poverty is a never ending cycle
Utilitarians Utilitarianism- goal of society should be the greatest happiness for the greatest # of its citizens. Jeremy Bentham – society’s goal should be to provide the above, with some gov’t involvement. John Stuart Mill – government intervention was needed to improved lives of working class, free market is bad he said = poverty.
Socialist Thought Socialists felt laissez-faire created rich and poor classes People as a whole would own and operate the means of production – Farms, mines, factories
Robert Owen Attempted an utopia – New Lanark Belief – Good working conditions, wages, and living areas – Still make a profit – Education provided
Karl Marx Believed utopias are unrealistic Get rid of social classes – Produce for the whole “Father of communism”. German who hated capitalism. Free market bad, only benefits a few. Need classless society.. Proletariat (working class) will triumph overthrowing bourgeoisie, struggle is inevitable.
Communism *form of socialism *class struggle inevitable and will lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth & property would be owned by the community as a whole.
Marxism in the Future Social Democracy- political ideology in which there is a gradual shift from capitalism to socialism – Do you know any examples? End of the 20 th century this political idea has lost popularity
Utopias When you hear the word Utopia, what do you think of? With 2-3 people create an Utopia – Requirements for the Utopia Religion Economic System Educational System Government Legal System
Economic Systems Class will be broken into thirds You will be given an economic system – Market, Central (Command), Mixed Read your section and the other systems – Compare and contrast – Be ready to state your case on why your economic system is better