Presentation on theme: "Liberalism Since the Second World War"— Presentation transcript:
1Liberalism Since the Second World War In what ways have economies reflected The principles of liberalism since the second world war?Outcome 2.10
2Views of Economics Following WWI In the decades following the First World War, counties such a Britain, USA, and Canada all implemented changes to the role of the state.There was a growth in the implementation of the principles of modern liberalism, particularly in relation to trade, international cooperation, and foreign aid.The idea of providing a “social safety net” expanded
3(pg 215 for more information) The Postwar (WWII) Canadian Economy: The government started several programs characteristic of a welfare state:Universal healthcareCanadian Pension PlanForeign Investment Review Agency – later renamed Investment Canada – geared toward monitoring take foreign investmentThe Canadian Radio and Television CommissionAtomic Energy of Canada Limited(pg 215 for more information)
4Boom and Bust According to Keynes’ theory: In a recession, governments spend more to influence employment and thus demandIn prosperous times, governments spend less to control inflation.So inflation should not exist in a stagnant economy.
6Energy Crisis (1973)Arab states, frustrated by losses in war to Israel, seek to punish Israeli’s allies.OPEC (The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) declares an oil embargo on the nations of the West, specifically the US and the NetherlandsOPEC also slowed the production of oil – causing prices to quadruple.
7Energy Crisis and the West Oil shortages wreak havoc with industrialized economies and force gas rationing in the U.S.Goods became more expensive, causing rising inflation and the slowing of the economy.The embargo lasted for 5 months.Freely floating currencies also caused inflation. USA had dropped off the gold standard in 1971
81970s So, inflation and a recession occurred at the same time. This is called stagflation.
10How did stagflation effect the UK? Inflation caused the cost of running social programs to increase, yet the slowing of the economy meant governments could collect less tax revenue.in 1976, the British government was forced to borrow US$3.9 billion from the International Monetary FundThe result was an increasing deficit and no means to repay the debt.See British Prime Minister James Callaghan’s speech and the chart on American inflation on page 217.
11Pause for reflection…Why did Keynes’ ideas not work as well as he may have hoped?Alternatives to Keynes were dusted off…
12Introducing... Monetarism This theory holds that control of a country’s money supply is the best means to encourage economic growth and limit unemployment and inflation.It was a return to the principles of classical liberalism through the application of laissez-faire policies.New leaders attempted to undo interventionist policies of previous governments.
13Hayek and MonetarismFredrich Hayek felt government control of the economy would threaten the liberty of the individual as the government gained control over all aspects of a citizen’s life.Hayek believed that the price system (free market) was the only way to balance supply and demand in the economy while maintaining individual liberty.
14Principles of Monetarism Decrease government intervention and spending in the economyDownsize the public sector by privatizing government owned business and services/programs and also and deregulate the economyDecrease taxes and lower interest rates to increase the supply of capital to the “job creators”Control the amount of money in supplyAccept unemployment to keep wages low – as this helps business to grow (can reinvest profits)Keep government small (costs less money then to run a government
15Freidman and Monetarism Milton Friedman was a key economic thinker associated with neo-Conservatism (bringing back of the ideas of classical liberalism).Influenced by HayekSince his ideas were more closely linked with classical liberalism he was opposed to modern liberalismHe was against the welfare state (social safety nets via government intervention) as it requires large government and excessive spending which leads to debtHe was for fiscal responsibility and balanced budgetsHis theory is called MONETARISM because it focuses on the amount of money circulating in the economy.Belief Regarding Inflation:Inflation is the result of an excess of money produced by the central banks.
16If Keynesian theory is called Demand Side Economics… What might Monetarism be called?Demand Side EconomicsSupply Side Economics
17Supply-Side Economics is also known as “Trickle-down” economics
18What’s supposed to “trickle down”? WealthTax breaks to the wealthy will result in more money to invest in jobsThose jobs will give money to more peopleThus the wealth will “trickle-down”
19Examples of Supply-Side policies EnterpriseIncentives for business start-upsTax incentives for research and developmentlower business taxes on profits arising from patentsCapitalMoney spent on infrastructureNew tooling in industryHuman factorTax reforms and work incentivesEducation and trainingMarketsmore competition between businessesopenness to trade and investment from other countries
21Reaganomics Ronald Reagan (US Pres 81-88) Previous administrations had tried to combat stagflation with wage and price controls, but Reagan wanted less government involvement and a more individualist approach to economics.Lower taxes, especially among the wealthy, will result in greater investment in the economy, therefore greater growth.Increased investment and government defense spending will “trickle down” through the economy to the working class.
22In Times of Inflation… In Times Of Recession… Reduce corporate taxesCreates more profitActs as incentive to enter businessReduce public income taxIncreases public’s incentive to workProvides more money to spendIncreased production creates demandSupply-siders insist that increased demand for goods and services must come from the private sector, not from government spending.The unrestricted market will eventually bring inflation under control
23Reaganomics in Action Reaganomics Following 1981 the Reagan administration put in action the following policies…Tax cuts primarily for corporations and the wealthyCut income tax 25%Government spending cuts in social servicesWelfare subsidies, Medicaid, food stampsA stable money supplyDeregulation of the economyReduced environmental, health, & safety regulationsAim to balance the budget.See the chart of government spending on pg 221
24British prime minister Margaret Thatcher: Thatcherism in ActionThatcherismFollowing 1979 the Thatcher government in Britain put in action the following policies…Wide scale privatizationEmphasis on individual initiativeReduced the power of labour unions (pg 221)Reduced income and corporate taxesBritish prime minister Margaret Thatcher:Influenced by monetarism and tried to reduce the government’s role in the economy through the application of classical economic principles.
25Reaganomics/Thatcherism: A Balance Sheet Arguments in FavorA reduction in unemploymentA reduction in inflationAn increase in productionA world wide move towards private enterpriseArguments AgainstGrowing national debtGrowing inequalities in income levelsA boom and bust cycleThe decline of the middle class.
30Blair’s Third WayTony Blair (Labour) ran for office in 1997 on a platform called the “Third Way”It was the adoption of some Thatcherite and free-market policies, while maintaining some social programsIt was a compromise between Keynesian economics and monetarism - an attempt at balancing individualistic values of monetarism with collectivist values of social justice.In practice, resulted in increased public spending on health care and education and introduced a minimum wage.At the same time, introduced tuition fees for post-secondary education.