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1300-1600: Tremendous Change in Europe Renaissance: New views on learning and art Reformation: New views on religion Scientific Revolution: New views on.

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Presentation on theme: "1300-1600: Tremendous Change in Europe Renaissance: New views on learning and art Reformation: New views on religion Scientific Revolution: New views on."— Presentation transcript:

1 1300-1600: Tremendous Change in Europe Renaissance: New views on learning and art Reformation: New views on religion Scientific Revolution: New views on nature Age of Exploration: New views on world

2 Basic European History Time Line Antiquity  Middle Ages  Modern Era Middle Ages (500 – 1500) – Includes the Renaissance (1350-1550) – Break down of Middle Ages Early Middle Ages (500-1000) High Middle Ages (1000-1300) Later Middle Ages (1300-1500) – To appreciate full significance of the Renaissance, must be familiar with Early and High Middle Ages

3 Early Middle Ages: 500-1000 THE DARK AGES

4 Invasions! 476 Fall of Rome Various invasions mostly by Germanic tribes Western Europe breaks into many small kingdoms Recall Byzantine Empire not affected by invasions to degree that Western Europe was – Growth of Byzantine Empire under Justinian (527- 565)

5 Social Consequences of Constant Warfare Trade collapses Cities abandoned as centers of administration Population becomes mostly rural Decline of learning Germanic invaders were illiterate Literacy mostly limited to priests and church officials Knowledge of Greek, long important in Roman culture, was almost lost entirely Loss of common language of Latin By 800 CE  French, Spanish, and other Roman based languages evolved from Latin

6 Political Changes No strong central government  lots of small Germanic kingdoms replace Roman provinces Concept of government changes: – Roman government: loyalty to public government and written law had unified society – Germanic society: loyalty based upon family ties or personal relationship (felt no obligation to obey a king did not know or obey king’s official sent to collect taxes or administer justice)

7 Importance of Frankish Kingdom 511: Clovis unites the Germanic group the Franks into largest and strongest kingdom Clovis converts to Christianity – Strategic alliance between Franks and Church marks start of partnership between 2 powerful forces By 600, with help of Franks, many German tribes had converted to Christianity

8 Important Leaders of Frankish Kingdom Charles Martel: mayor of palace (actually had more power than king) who defeated Muslim invaders at Battle of Tours in 732 (less than 100 miles outside of Paris) – After this, no further efforts by Muslim invaders to take more of Western Europe (focused on North Africa and Eastern Europe instead) Charlemagne: – Builds up empire greater than any since Roman Empire – Spreads Christianity – 800: Historic coronation when Pope Leo III crowns him emperor Pope claimed to have political right to confer title Signifies joining of Germanic power, Church, and heritage of Roman Empire

9 Charlemagne Strong personality and military might inspire loyalty Not have huge standing army or way to collect taxes, but still a huge success Strengthened rule by limiting power of nobles: used royal agents to govern empire “Carolingian Renaissance”: – Invited scholars from all over Europe to his court for discussion of religious and scientific matters – Encouraged study of Latin literature – Ordered monasteries to open schools to train future monks and priests, and to preserve books in libraries – Charlemagne’s patronage was crucial for Carolingian Renaissance – Carolingian Renaissance limited to Charlemagne’s court and monasteries

10 New Breakdown in Central Power Leads to Feudalism Upon death of Charlemagne, no capable rulers to replace him 800-1000: series of invasions from all sides – Muslims seize Sicily – Magyars from east – Vikings from north No central authority Leads to new social order: feudalism

11 Feudal System Feudal system: Social system based mutual obligations involving land holding and protective alliances among king, lord, and knight – Lord could be a noble or a bishop – Knights were mounted horseman who pledged to defend lord Manor system: – Economic side to feudalism – System between lord and peasant where lord provides housing, farmland and protection in exchange for serf’s farm work, portion of crops, and various taxes In feudal system, status determined by power (usually inherited) – Those who fought (nobles and knights) – Those who prayed (men and women of the Church) – Those who worked (peasants) Majority of the people were peasants Self contained world: peasants’ work produces almost everything lord needs Harsh life for peasants – Life of pure work – Taxes owed to lord and to Church – Illness and malnutrition were widespread – Despite hard life, believed that God determined person’s place in society and they could not expect anything more than what they had

12 Code of Chivalry Feudal lords raised private armies of knights because nobles were constantly fighting each other Code of chivalry for knights – Glorified both combat and romantic love – Demanded that knight fight bravely in defense of 3 masters Earthly feudal lord Heavenly lord Chosen lady – Also supposed to protect the poor and weak, but most failed to meet this standard (treated lower classes poorly) – Training for knight began at age 7. Full knight at 21. – Forced to engage in truly brutal warfare Literature, poetry, and songs of chivalry – Played down brutality of knighthood – Idealized glory of battle and romance – Songs and poems sung by traveling musicians called troubadours

13 Power of Church Religion occupied center stage in much of the Middle Ages Amid weak central governments, Church emerges as unifying force and powerful institution Church recognizes that living is harsh for most, but encourages all people to follow path to salvation (which is everlasting life in heaven) – Sacraments were path to salvation Affect every day lives of many: – Church law existed regarding marriage and religious practices; Church participated in celebration of religious festivals and administration of sacraments administer sacraments – Most regular contact with people was through the parish priest

14 Monasteries To adapt to rural conditions  build religious communities called monasteries – In these communities, Christian men called monks and Christian women called nuns give up private possessions and devote lives to serving God Monasteries become Europe’s best educated communities – Monks open schools, maintain libraries, and copy books – Made beautiful copies of religious writings decorated with ornate letters and brilliant pictures (preserving at least a part of Rome’s intellectual heritage)

15 Example of Work by Monks: Book of Kells

16 Role of Pope Pope is head of Church; considered to be successor to St. Peter Popes broadened power beyond spiritual role by becoming involved in political matters such as: – Using Church revenues to raise armies, repair roads, help poor – Negotiating peace treaties with invaders (Lombards) – Crowning Charlemagne emperor in 800 and Otto the Great in 962 Land allegedly governed was from Italy to England and Spain to Germany Idea of a churchly kingdom, ruled by pope, is central theme of Middle Ages – Clashes between pope and political leaders regarding extent of power, including who could appoint bishops (powerful positions in Church) – 2 harshest punishments Church could use to get rulers to cede to pope: Excommunication: banish ruler from Church, denied salvation Interdict: shut off ruler’s town from sacraments (people fear losing salvation so pressure ruler to cede to pope)

17 Church Reform Problems in Church – Too worldly: wealthy, own too much land, too involved in politics – Priests and bishops not follow canon law regarding celibacy (had been marrying, having children contrary to law) – Some bishops selling positions in Church – Popes and clergy of questionable morals Age of Faith New spirit in Church leads to reform in 900s called the “Age of Faith” – Start in monasteries: return to basic principles of Christian religion (spirituality versus worldliness) – Popes stand behind reforms designed to eliminate problems – Popes try to further restructure Church as a kingdom with pope at head – New religious orders begin: Franciscans and Dominicans

18 Cathedrals Reflect Zeal for Faith Cathedral: viewed as representing City of God that should be decorated with all riches Christians could offer 800-1000: Romanesque style – Rounded arches – Heavy roof held by thick walls and pillars – Tiny windows that led in little light

19 High Middle Ages: 1000-1300 CHANGES IN MEDIEVAL SOCIETY

20 Population, Guilds, Trade Invasions cease; more stability Population explodes: Improved farming techniques led to more food, better nutrition, better chance at survival Guilds emerge: organization of individuals in same business working to improve economic and social conditions of its members (like modern day union) – Merchant guilds: control number of goods traded and keep prices up – Craft guilds: standards for quality of work, wages, conditions, training of workers – Guilds become powerful influence in economy and government Trade develops: – Local fairs in towns – International trade: Italian merchants in particular travel Mediterranean to Constantinople, and to Muslim ports in North Africa – Business acumen develops: Increased market for goods  profit  reinvest profit to buy more goods to sell Letters of credit used by traders Banking systems formed in Italy

21 Towns Grow; Feudal System Declines Towns grow: – People attracted to lucrative trading in towns – Feudal system starts to die out as serfs run away to towns Merchant class: – Shifted traditional social order of noble, clergy, peasant (merchant was wealthy but not by inheritance – through own intelligence and work) – Feudal lords at first try to control towns where merchants were – Merchants organize selves and fight for control

22 Age of Faith Inspires New Church Architecture New spirit in Church fuels Gothic style Money from growing wealth in towns Characteristics: – Thrust upward as if reaching heaven – Pointed arches – Flying buttresses – Huge stained glass windows – All elements meant to inspire magnificence of God 1170-1270: over 500 Gothic cathedrals built Show of faith: took long time to build with little tools

23 Age of Faith Inspires Conquest and Inquisition Conquest Crusade: Holy war to gain control of Holy Land 1095: Pope Urban II declares holy war against Muslims in Holy Land 4 major crusades End in a truce: Muslims maintain control, but Christians can make pilgrimages to Holy Land Inquisition Inquisition: Church court set up to try people for infractions against Church doctrine Resulted in torture and sometimes death for those found guilty Spain had own inquisition (“Spanish Inquisition”) to find heretics and expel Muslims and Jews

24 Education Advances Universities develop – University of Paris and University of Bologna were first universities – Students usually sons of wealthy merchants – Study to get job in government or the Church Poets begin to use local language which increases education (Ex. Dante’s Divine Comedy in Italian and Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales in English)

25 12 th Century Renaissance Christian scholars visit Muslim libraries in Spain to study ancient Greek and Latin works that Muslims had preserved Christian scholars like Thomas Aquinas study ancient texts specifically in order to reconcile truth of the ancients with faith – Aquinas and companions called “scholastics” – Focused on finding the absolute truth and logical analysis – In Summa Theologica argued religious truths could be proved by logical argument Jurists look to Roman law for guidance Because of reliance on ancients, this period sometimes referred to as the “12 th Century Renaissance”

26 Development of Nation States and Democratic Traditions As feudal system declines and towns grow  more centralized government and development of nations Kings in France and England especially consolidate their power, setting up lasting institutions to help them govern

27 England Royal court system – Royal judges go to every part of England at least once a year to collect taxes, settle lawsuits, and punish crimes – Introduce jury system – Use of common law: over centuries, case by case, rulings of English royal judges form body of law known as common law Basis of law for England and USA today 1215: Magna Carta – Most celebrated document in English history and cornerstone of democratice government – Represents backlash of nobles over king’s efforts to centralize – Nobles sought to limit king’s powers by guaranteeing certain political rights No tax without representation No trial with jury No case without protection of law – Underlying principle: all subject to law, even king 1295: Model Parliament – Legislative body made up of commoners (non-nobles) and lords – King has to call every time wants to raise a tax – Eventually form 2 groups that make up legislative body operating in England today House of Commons House of Lords

28 France Royal court system – Royal officials called bailiffs sent from Paris to every district in kingdom to preside over king’s courts and to collect taxes – Appeals court that could overturn local feudal courts Estates General – Tiered legislative system: First Estate = Church; Second Estate = Great Lords; Third Estate = commoners, wealthy landowners or merchants – Centuries later: Third Estate play key role in overthrowing French monarchy during French Revolution Summary of England and France centralization of government: – Took control of more land – Expand power of government through courts and law – Include commoners in government

29 Other governments Germany – Consisted of much of what was Holy Roman Empire – Monarchy not centralize as quickly as in England and France Constant clash with pope over authority Emperor elected by princes (rather than assume power by divine right as in England and France) Power based upon feudal bonds versus monarchic institutions in France and England Spain – Not yet ready to centralize because broken into small, weak principalities

30 Later Middle Ages 1300-1500

31 1300s = Europe in Crisis Serious Problems in Church – No longer successful at trying to be a papal monarchy because lost moral credibility – Crusades not end in victory – Church divided within: cannot decide where pope should live or who should even be pope (time called the Great Schism) – Scholars challenge authority of Church John Wycliffe from England; Jan Hus from Bohemia Reject pope as head of Church Reject worldliness of clergy Emphasize importance of Bible and translate it into English Challenges will reappear with much greater strength and effect during Reformation Famine: Change in climate and overpopulation led to large famine

32 Bubonic Plague Bubonic plague virus traveled on trade routes in Asia – Arrived in Europe in 1300s – Name from black and purple spots appear on skin – Some communities escape unharmed; others completely annihilated – Kill 25 million in Europe alone Economic and social effects are enormous – Trade declines – Feudal system disintegrates with serfs leaving in search of better wages – Nobles fiercely resist peasant demand for higher wages resulting in various peasant rebellions – Church loses more authority because unable to stop destruction of plague

33 Hundred Years War 1337-1453 War between England and France over French crown Disrupts trade; results in even more death on both sides (in addition to famine and plague deaths) Marks end of chivalry because knights no longer powerful due to foot soldier’s use of long bow Increase in nationalism for France and England

34 End of Medieval Era Many scholars mark the end of the Hundred Years War (1453) as end of Medieval Era Twin pillars of Medieval world – religious devotion and chivalry – no longer held power that did before – Age of Faith no longer Scandalous wealth Great Schism Inability to stop plague – Knights replaced by foot soldiers

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