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1 Rob BennettNeil Fyda Kathleen HarveyJames Hoffman Tiffany WareJohn Wedig.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Rob BennettNeil Fyda Kathleen HarveyJames Hoffman Tiffany WareJohn Wedig."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Rob BennettNeil Fyda Kathleen HarveyJames Hoffman Tiffany WareJohn Wedig

2 2

3  Automotive  Aviation  Process Heating  Power Generation  District Heating 3

4  Many types of plant biomass can be rendered to produce fuel.  Plants can be chosen to grow in a region that best suits them, while the end result is the same fuel.  No engine modifications necessary between the fuel from the different plants.  Stimulate economies of many regions. 4

5  Plants use the carbon in CO 2 while growing.  Burning a biofuel releases this carbon atom, but it is re- stored into the next biofuel plant.  Result is no new carbon into the atmosphere.  Fallacy is fossil fuels used during biofuel production. 5

6 Tiffany Ware

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8  Agricultural vs Process Production  Direct and indirect impacts may be higher than the same product produced from fossil fuels  Vary widely, depending on  feedstock, technology considered and boundary condition assumed  Co-generation of other products may lead to improved performance  intensive agricultural production and conversion of natural land to cropland may lead to negative results  Second-generation biofuels also show positive results if produced from waste or residues or from wood 8

9 9

10  Biofuel GHG emissions and energy less only when no land use change is considered  Demand for fuel crops has increased the need for expansion of crop land  Destruction of natural habitats  Decrease in biodiversity  Regional difference, clearing of rainforest or other areas with high carbon storage value can have significant influence  Largest limiting factors for biomass production 10

11  Plans for fuel crop production driven by targets rather than land use planning  negatively impacts developing countries  Palm Oil for Biodiesel  mainly used for cooking/cooking products  Malaysia and Indonesia = 95% ↑ production for biodiesel/plants supported by foreign countries  The Amazon  Total arable land of Brazil currently ~ 60 Mha.  An additional 60 Mha of land could potentially come into agricultural production, if no gov’t regulation 11

12  Energy from biomass = 70 to 400X more water than from other energy carriers  ex fossil fuels, wind and solar  Eutrophication can lead to serious problems with water quality and the surrounding ecosystems  nitrogen fertilizers speeds up nitrogen cycle  releases harmful N 2 O into the environment  N 2 O emissions source hard to trace 12

13 LCA: Life-Cycle Assessment 13


15 Reduce dependence on imported oil Promote energy security Decrease emissions of greenhouse gases

16 Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 The Energy Policy Act of 2005 Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008

17 Appropriated $16.5 billion annually for funding agricultural subsidies -Meant to focus on funding agriculture, ecology, energy, trade, and nutrition initiatives -Benefited producers of grains, upland cotton, and oilseeds

18 Provided tax incentives and loan guarantees for various types of renewable energy and biofuel producers Attempted to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil Attempted to compensate for the increased use of energy by the U.S. population

19  This Act also required increases in the amount of biofuels that must be mixed with gasoline in the United States.  Four Billion U.S. gallons by 2006  6.1 billion U.S. by 2009  7.5 U.S. gallons by 2012  the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 extended the target to 36 billion U.S. gallons by 2022 19

20  Required the following,  “Significantly increased volumes of renewable fuel production  Restricts the types of feedstocks that can be used to make renewable fuels and the types of land that can be used to grow feedstocks. 20

21  Appropriated $288 billion for a five-year agricultural subsidy that funds companies and groups pursuing initiatives such as energy, nutrition, conservation and rural development  This act supported initiatives including:  Agricultural Research  Food Stamp Benefits  Increased support of the production of cellulosic ethanol 21

22  Policies supporting biofuels since the 1970s  Strong agricultural base  Largest source of ethanol in the U.S.  35% of the nation’s production capacity in Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin 22

23 *Taken from the Agricultural Marketing Resource Center ol_production_imports_and_stocks.cfm ol_production_imports_and_stocks.cfm 23

24  Ethanol and Biodiesel Fuel Pump Income Tax Credit  25% or up to $5000 to install purveyors  Goals to reduce petroleum consumption  20% by 2010 and 50% by 2015  Ethanol production tax credit  Executive Order from the governor  Requires 25% renewable fuels for power and transportation by 2025 24

25  First state to mandate that all gasoline have 10% ethanol  will increase to 20% in 2013  Blenders’ credit  4 cents per gallon for blenders that put at least 10% ethanol into gas  Goal of having 25% of ethanol supplies come from cellulosic feedstocks by 2015  Biodiesel mandate  currently 5%  First state to do so 25

26  Produces about 25% of the ethanol in the U.S.  Enterprise Zone and High-Quality Job Creation Programs  tax credits to ethanol plants  Renewable Fuels Standard began in 2009  10% of gasoline sales must come from renewable sources  Will increase to 25% in 2021  Ethanol Promotion Tax Credit for E100 26

27  Biofuels  adverse environmental impacts and competes with food production  Advanced biofuels gaining support  High levels of lignin or cellulose  E.g. trees, shrubs, grasses  Most programs are federal  Reinvest in Minnesota  converts agricultural land into cellulosic crop land 27


29  Lots of new federal and state policies developing quickly  Example of Range Fuels  Received a $76 million dollar loan from Congress in 2007 to produce cellulosic ethanol  Went bankrupt in 2011 and never created an operational plant 29

30  Shift away from food- based biofuels  Congress repealed $6 billion dollars per year in tax credits for ethanol in June 2011  Focus on second- generation biofuels  Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 30

31 Nuffield Council on Bioethics 1. Biofuel development should not supersede a person’s basic rights to food, land, or water 2. The biofuel should be environmentally sustainable 3. Biofuels should help reduce greenhouse gasses 4. The economic aspect of biofuels should reflect fair trade principles 5. The costs and benefits of biofuels should be fairly distributed 31

32  Sixth ethical consideration—we have a duty to develop biofuels if they meet the first five guidelines  Future policy should reflect this duty 32

33  Biofuels are an option – not necessarily a prepackage solution.  Negative impacts must be monitored via effective policy.  Land degradation, water usage, food shortage 33

34  Current policies are in place to promote biofuel research and production  Require careful review and maintenance to avoid another Range Fuels incident  Policies should prevent or limit use of overly unsustainable biofuel crops.  Can not be considered renewable if unsustainable  Effective policy making and maintenance will ensure a bright future for biofuels. 34

35 Stefan Bringezu, Helmut Schutz, Meghan O´Brien, Lea Kauppi, Robert W. Howarth, Jeff McNeely, Martina Otto. “Assessing Biofuels” UNEP, (2009): 16, 68 “Biofuel.” Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Web Radich, Anthony. “Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use”, US DOE n.d. Nov. 13, 2011 Wright, Liz. “Green Hornet to take Flight on Earth Day”, US Navy, Mar. 30, 2010, Chisti, Yusuf. “Biodiesel from microalgae.” Biotechnology Advances 25.3 (2007) : 294-306. “Biofuels.” REOC, n.d. Web. Nov. 13, 2011 109th Congress,. United States. Congress. Public Law 109-58. 2005. Web.. Freeman, Weldon. “USDA Approves first ever guaranteed loan for commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plant.” USDA, 16 Jan 2009. Web. 13 Nov 2011.. “Funding for farmers is a tough row to hoe: the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act.” CBS Business Network Resource Library. Spring.2003 (2003): 1-5. Print. Koshel, Patricia, and Kathleen McAllister. Expanding Biofuel Production and the Transition to Advanced Biofuels. 1st ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2010. Print. Elcock, Deborah. “Future U.S. Water Consumption: The Role Of Energy Production.” Journal Of The American Water Resources Association 46.3 (2010): 447-460. 13 Nov. 2011. “Fiscal Sobriety”. The Economist. June 23, 2011.. Tait, Joyce. "Shaping An Ethical Future For Biofuels." Bioscience 61.9 (2011): 653-654. 13 Nov. 2011. "The Range Fuels Fiasco." Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition 10 Feb. 2011: A18. 13 Nov. 2011.. 35

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