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Definitions and IDs Frankfurt Assembly Mazzini Irish Potato Famine

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1 Definitions and IDs Frankfurt Assembly Mazzini Irish Potato Famine
suffrage The Communist Manifesto The First International Frankfurt Assembly- First German parliament Mazzini- Intellectual who wanted and helped along Italian unification Irish Potato Famine- Fungus destroyed Irish potato crop, which was heavily relied on. Suffrage- Right to vote The Communist Manifesto- influential work by Karl Marx that advocated overthrow of capitalism The First International- The choice of workers between the extremes of anarchism and socialism

2 Questions and Imperatives
Discuss France after Napoleon Bonaparte’s second abdication. Discuss the Revolutions of 1848 (France, Prussia, Austria, Italy) – Who, What, Why, and Significance Describe early socialism (Pre-Marx) Discuss Karl Marx’s Economic and Revolutionary Theories What leads people to challenge conventional ideas and practices? (Class discussion) Karl Marx’s economic theory was that conflict often arose from the fact that class divisions existed in the material world and throughout history there has always been class distinctions when it comes to material wealth. The group that controlled economic power controlled the state. He stated that once the forces of industrial capitalism overcame the horrible conditions the working class had to endure they would overthrow the capitalist system.

3 France Louis Philippe appeared to be a good Bourgeois King
Told middle class, “Go, make money for yourselves and don’t let the nobility get in your way.” accepted the tri-color flag, symbolic of the revolution turned out to be a mean, tight-fisted King began to curtail freedom of speech and press François Guizot was the King’s chief minister he believed in equal opportunity, thought every man was free to get rich...if the man didn’t, it was his own fault...he hadn’t seized his opportunities he encouraged business expansion he had the support of the King, but was not popular with France he seemed to run the country and it appeared to some that he was corrupt in some ways to get people on his side All over Europe, the 1840’s saw bad harvests making for an economically tense well as politically tense. (Time of the Irish potato famine)

4 France cont. By 1847, there were protests
Conservative bourgeois politician Thiers led the protests King dismissed Guizot to try to pacify the mobs King sent out his national guard but they were no longer loyal King abdicated in 1848, a provisional government was patched together in February and proclaimed themselves the Second Republic ( ) Recall First Republic (WHEN?) we are currently in the (?) Republic

5 Provisional Government
Provisional gov’t included Lamartine, a poet, Louis Blanc, a socialist, Albert Martin, a worker (the only non-Bourg member),…a variety of people Parisians were happy with the new provisional government, they saw hope; they also paraded to the hotel (the city hall) and offered the new republic a gift of a day’s wages HOW MANY OF YOU WOULD DO THAT??? elections for a new constituent assembly were scheduled for April struggle for power within provisional government -- different ideas: - liberals for moderate reform - republican for radical reform - Blanc, the socialist, suggested national workshops

6 The (French) Socialists
Blanc, the socialist, suggested the establishment of workshops system set up to pay unemployed a small amount and put them to work he had found the factories to be in a wretched condition workers were exploited workshops were intended for the better treatment of the worker workers flocked to Paris system would organize talk groups (50% workers and 50% employers) Blanc was popular for a time with this idea, at least among the workers employers saw it as a violation of their freedom Provisional Government adopted universal male suffrage abolished the death penalty rejected participation in foreign wars improved relations with the Catholic Church Elections in April based on universal manhood suffrage voters included monarchists, republicans, socialists

7 The population is primarily lower class;
What do you think the National Assembly would look like?? Hmmmmmmm…

8 France, JUNE 1848 Workshops abolished as revolutionary
(only workers were interested) workshop workers told to join army or leave rioting broke out in Paris, workers put up barricades, “better a death from bullets than from starvation” 4 days in was a revolution of DESPAIR, not optimism government forces under General Cavaignac crushed the uprising (about 5,000 lives) the workers had turned on their social betters thought the Bourgeois class some socialists believed the Bourgeois politicians provoked the worker’s revolt in order to have an excuse to drown the “reds” in their own blood General Cavaignac ruled as dictator through the summer

9 December Elections elections for president of France were held in December - Lamartine (18,000) - Cavaignac (1,000,000+) - Louis Napoleon (5,000,000+) supposedly Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew...said he could restore the glory of France...or 70% of the vote

10 PRUSSIA, 1848 Prussia was backward compared to France & England
no significant industrial revolution The guilds/artisans were not of the new bourgeoisie class...they were old era the Guilds still dominated, but there was an emergence of entrepreneurs and Artisans felt their backs pushed against the wall Had to compete with machinery artisans were now compelled to work for entrepreneurs make less money now common workers and had lost their sense of self

11 In Berlin 2 separate dynamics lead to revolution
Artisans vs. Entrepreneurs Conservative Bourgeoisie vs. Traditional feudal Hohenzollern (Prussian Aristocratic Dynasty) Artisan were filled with anxiety with signs of industrialization  King Friedrich Wilhelm had come to power supporting liberal reforms, but never carried them out hearing of other revolts, people celebrated and were provoked into rioting (March 1848) King appointed a liberal government and set up a national assembly King promised reforms

12 Frankfurt Assembly Paulskirche in Frankfurt May 1848 – March 1849
Discussed reforms AND…. Kleindeutsche Grossedeutsche

13 Habsburg Empire revolution in the Austrian Empire began in Hungary
March 1848, workers and students speak out invade Vienna, including the palace Emperor promised reforms & liberal constitution Conservative Minister Metternich resigned (maybe dismissed?) under pressure by Emperor Ferdinand I & fled to England part of the Emperor’s capitulation included abolishment of serfdom and peasants felt a victory (March 1848) monarchy played different groups against each other (i.e. Hungarians vs. Czechs) the urban poor rose up in the big cities demanding workshops and voting rights for all men aristocratic forces gathered around the Emperor in support for their strength Archduchess Sophia was married to the Emperor’s brother...she and the chief minister, along with others convinced the Emperor to abdicate in favor of her son Franz Joseph, the Emperor’s reign had been weakened by all the uprisings Franz Joseph was crowned emperor of Austria in December 1848


15 Italy What made up Italy?
SICILY ROME TUSCANY LOMBARDY furthest north were mountains (cooler)...vineyards Italy started with a lot of raw materials, no sense of self (more local, regional, municipal) illiteracy was high no roads connecting villages French were disliked because they plundered the Italian Peninsula for their goods...there was a two-edged sword (opened minds to unification but left a bad taste in their mouths from the exploitation) From most Italians were inert...only a few progressive...there were a few revolutions (Naples, Rome, Milan, Venice)…but a preparation for…UNIFICATION

16 Mazzini thinker, intellectual, radical liberal,
create feeling of wanting to be Italian Wanted Italian Unification create a nation of equals we are Italians (a brotherhood) Italy bedeviled by hatred, conflicts eliminate regional differences in one fell swoop by unification (“I am Italian,” not “I am Venetian”) wants this done by spontaneous wills of the people of Italy created a revolutionary group called “Young Italy” Mazzini called the “high priest of Italian Nationalism” November 1848, Revolution in Rome

17 Irish Potato Famine Population explosion in Ireland in first half of nineteenth century Irish became dependent on (large) potato crop; better yield than any other crop The large potatoes were highly susceptible to a fungus Between 1845 and 1849, a fungus attacked the potato crop of Ireland

18 What was done Sir Robert Peel’s British government did not react immediately, saying that the Irish always over-exaggerated situations British government sold the Irish American maize and started some relief projects Low yield crops in 1847, but people were starving Let the Irish help the Irish With little or no crops and accompanying disease… One million died and one million emigrated

19 Irish evicted by landlord

20 The Rise of Socialism industrial revolution did not make everyone happy, or make everyone prosper Widening gap between have’s and have not’s  idea of products of labor divided between people according to their needs was not a brand new idea...simple societies had followed this practice  1820’s this idea was referred to as “socialism” and it was taken a bit addition to economic equality, they wanted political and social reforms 19th century reformers wanted to redress social injustice workers and poor were aware of injustices thrust on them majority of middle class did not care one bit about poor

21 Early Socialists Count Henri de Saint Simone (France)
proposed social reorganization based on technical experts & scientists these doers would plan the economy and guide it forward with public works projects and investment banks goals should be to improve conditions for the poor, religion helping in this way coined the teaching of the socialist creed, “From each according to his capacity, to each according to his work” work had highest value and workers would replace “thinkers” as leaders Charles Fourier (France) problems of society result of unfavorable environment, therefore fix it create self-sufficient agricultural communities a majority of utopian communities were founded in his name (majority in USA) called for abolition of marriage replacing it with free unions based on love and sexual freedom

22 20th-century commune living

23 Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) German, prosperous middle class family
friend and collaborator of Karl Marx wrote “The Condition of the Working Class in England” in 1844 Industrial Revolution created a middle class and a lower working class middle class were property owners, working class were propertyless the term “class” had come into use to describe social categories produced by industrialization by the 19th century, social classes were identified by income and occupation Worked with Karl Marx in writing The Communist Manifesto

24 Karl Marx ( ) born a Jew, Marx’ father had family convert to Christianity when Karl was a young boy prosperous middle class family studied at the Universities of Bonn and Berlin, took up journalism his articles (an editor of a newspaper) caused him to be hated by Prussian government moved to Paris, renewing a friendship with Engels Marx and Engels combined efforts to “diagnose the cause of society’s ills, and to provide a prescription for their cure.” Marx did not want to stop progress, greater productivity would improve the lives of more people (a prophet of modernism, not an enemy) it was the economics of society that needed to change Das Capital (1st vol. appeared in 1867, Engels edited other 2 vols. after Marx’s death)

25 Marxism includes economic and revolutionary theories
Marxist Party within Socialism/Communism their aim was to overturn over the capitalists Capitalist system is filled with economic exploitation exploited “wealth” of the workers 80% of Marx’s writing dealt with a critique of Capitalism society must go through feudalism, capitalism to get to communism Capitalism would collapse thanks to the inevitable contradiction of system


27 Capitalist Development Law
1) entrepreneurs reinvest money 2) they reinvest in technology 3) they gain an edge over the others 4) they become wealthier 5) a maximum profit is sought This is the infant stage of capitalism, it was competitive As time went on, losers would drop out, winners would absorb markets of losers & grow Less competition forced lower prices Free open marker system would lead to monopolies Few would dominate many

28 Capitalist Development Law
Increasing misery of the workers grows out of laws of capitalism: capitalist entrepreneurs in a position to lay off workers wage level of worker who is able to keep job goes down over time, an army of unemployed Proletariat (workers) grows by leaps and bounds Collapse of Capitalism: a handful of Capitalists control the wealth of society and the army of unemployed Who will buy the goods? Unemployed cannot afford to. Warehouses will become overstocked with society’s wealth at the highest level of Capitalism (the apex), prices bottom out Capitalism collapses and we enter the era of socialism

29 Marx’s Economic Theory
only Capitalists could build up industrial society materialism would bring happiness, building up plenty of goods divide this up between proletariat (“Distribute goods from each according to ability to each according to need.”) Marx believed 80% of the world was living in crushing poverty

30 The Revolutionary Marx
1848 revolutions throughout Europe Marx not convinced economic theory’s time to fulfill itself TURNS to REVOLUTION scrap the economic theory and take over capitalists by force before socialism emerged, only hope was through Church, wait for heavenly reward But Marx said that man was here to improve the lives of the poor and oppressed (NOW) along with Engels, writes Communist Manifesto “Workers of the World, UNITE!, a call to revolution By the 1848 revolutions, socialism had taken a turn in France and Germany Communism advocated abolition of private property Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wanted to overthrow the middle class used term communism to be distinguished from utopian socialists revolution was inevitable they outlined their ideas in “The Communist Manifesto” There will be a great growth of socialism and communism in Europe

31 The Communist Manifesto
this was done in response to and for the League of Communists formed 1 year earlier in London aim of the League (of Communists) overthrow of the bourgeoisie, establish rule of the proletariat, new social order with no classes and no private property The Communist Manifesto made little impression in 1848 Marx left for England and remained there the rest of his life The Communist Manifesto: work was to accomplish two ends - explain contemporary society by looking at pattern of history - provide a means to correct faults therefore was both a philosophical statement and a handbook to revolution

32 SO………. BUT… poor did not all get poorer capitalism never collapsed
The Communist Manifesto did (later) influence others toward revolution

33 International Communism
1863 Poland The International Workingmen’s Association founded in London in 1864 ( ) “The First International”: Anarchists vs. Socialists (the 2 extremes) working class had a choice of two major revolutionary theories in their fight against capitalism two theories: Anarchism and Marxism (Scientific Socialism) Anarchists led by Mikhail Bakunin, a Russian revolutionary exile Marxists led by Karl Marx other radical revolutionaries (Mazzini Italians, Proudhon French, trade unionists from Britain and Belgium) initially Mazzini (popular in England) was asked to draw up a program in the form of an inaugural address and statutes his writing showed he was more concerned with political than social problems the general council committee rejected Mazzini’s draft and gave the task to Marx Marx, as with the Manifesto, ended his address with “Workers of the World, Unite”

34 Marx versus Bakunin: West versus East Industrial versus Pre-Industrial
Agreement between the two: - no private property, but ownership of property by a community - revolution was need to destroy Capitalism Disagreement between the two: Marx said that the aim of the revolution was to take power from the Bourgeoisie and create a working class government (“the dictatorship of the proletariat”) Anarchists wanted to eliminate the state and all forms of authority Marx believed that the working class revolutionaries would come from a modern industrial proletariat (workers in places like Britain and Germany), he saw these as the true revolutionary class But, at the same time Marx had said that those who could not discern their own interest could be led by a group of “intellectuals” Bakunin focused on the “proletariat in rags” from preindustrial societies Marx tried to run the International, but Bakunin opposed him

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