14-2 Introduction to Corporate Financing Firms have three sources of cash from which to finance their activities. This chapter provides an overview of debt, equity, and internally generated funds.
14-3 Financial Markets Competition in financial markets is fierce-- much more so than in product markets. Few protected niches (ex: cannot patent the structure of a new security) Securities sell for their true values
14-4 Corporate Financing Firms have three broad sources of cash. Internally generated funds New equity issues New debt issues
14-5 Internally Generated Funds Historical sources of funds for FedEx
14-6 Why Internal Funds? Managers prefer to reinvest internal funds for a number of reasons: Cost of issuing securities New equity announcement implications
14-7 Corporate Financing What happens when the firm cannot finance all of its activities from plowed-back funds? Financial Deficit New Equity Issues New Debt Issues
14-8 Equity Issues Most corporations are too large to be owned by one investor; therefore they issue stock to many investors. Example: Dow is owned by 650,000 different investors. If it has billion shares outstanding, how much of Dow does an investor who holds one share own? The investor owns:, or % of Dow
14-9 Equity Terminology Treasury stock Stock that has been repurchased by the company and held in its treasury. Issued shares and Outstanding Shares Shares that have been issued by the company; shares that have been issued by the company and are held by investors. Authorized Share Capital The maximum number of shares that the company is permitted to issue without additional shareholder approval.
14-10 Equity Terminology: Example Imagine a firm has 100 million shares currently trading on the NYSE. The firm issues 20 million new shares, and repurchases 5 million shares one month later. What is the total change in treasury stock? What is the total change in the number of issued shares? What is the total change the number of shares outstanding?
14-11 Equity Terminology When a firm issues new equity, it records each new share in its books at par value. Additional Paid-in Capital The difference between the issue price and the par value of a stock Retained Earnings Earnings not paid out as dividends
14-12 Equity Terminology: Example Suppose a firm has recently issued 10 million new shares at $15 per share; the par value of each is $1.50. What is the value of additional paid-in capital (APIC)?
14-13 Net Common Equity Net Common Equity = Par Value + Additional Paid-in Capital + Retained Earnings - Share Repurchases Represents the total amount contributed directly by shareholders when the firm issued new stock, and contributed indirectly when it plowed back part of its earnings
14-14 Net Common Equity: Example What is the book value per share of equity for a firm with $1 million in net common equity; 50,000 in authorized share capital; 25,000 shares issued; and 20,000 shares outstanding?
14-15 Corporate Ownership A corporation is owned by its common stockholders. Owners are entitled to: Profits Control of the firm
14-16 Corporate Ownership Shareholders exercise control over the firm by voting for its board of directors. Majority Voting Voting system in which each director is voted on separately Cumulative Voting Voting system in which all votes that one shareholder is allowed to cast can be cast for one candidate for the board of directors Proxy Contest Takeover attempt in which outsiders compete with management for shareholders’ votes
14-17 Corporate Ownership: Example A shareholder owning 100 shares of stock is voting for the board of directors who are elected by cumulative voting. How many votes did the shareholder cast for Director 'A' if four directors are to be elected and the shareholder cast his/her maximum number of votes for 'A'? 400
14-19 Corporate Debt When issuing debt, companies promise to make payments and repay principal. But they have limited liability; debt is not always repaid.
14-20 Debt Characteristics Interest rate fluctuations Coupon vs. Zero-coupon Bonds Prime Rate LIBOR Would you expect the price of a 10-year floating-rate bond to be more or less sensitive to changes in interest rates than the price of a 10-year fixed-rate bond?
14-21 Debt Characteristics Funded and Unfunded Debt Debt with more than 1 year remaining to maturity; debt due in less than one year. Sinking Fund A fund established to retire debt before maturity. Callable Bond A bond that may be repurchased by a firm before maturity at a specified call price. If interest rates rise, would holders of callable bonds expect the firm to buy back the debt?
14-22 Debt Characteristics Seniority Subordinated Debt Security Secured Debt Currency and Country of Origin Eurodollars Eurobond
14-23 Debt Characteristics Public vs. Private Placements Protective Covenants Restrictions on a firm to protect bondholders Leases Long-term rental agreements
14-24 Convertible Securities Give investors the option to alter their investments if they so choose. Warrant The right to buy shares from a company at a stipulated price before a set date Convertible Bond A bond that the holder may exchange for a specified amount of another security
14-25 Convertible Securities: Example An investor owns a bond selling for $1,000. This bond can be converted to 20 shares of stock that are currently selling for $55 per share. Should the investor convert his bond into shares? Without conversion: With conversion: